SY 2006-2007

College of Business & Economics

The Determinants of Firm Growth in Small And Medium Enterprises in the National Capital Region
Dr. Emilina R. Sarreal
Business Management Department

Several personality, firm attribute, and macroeconomic-based approaches had been made to determine their influence on firm start ups and expansion. Studies had constantly claimed that successful entrepreneurs have far-reaching impact on economic development by increasing employment, fostering stability, escalating the tax base building capacity in developing countries, and reducing poverty.

This study attempted to mix personality, firm attribute and macroeconomic factors through multidimensional growth model in ascertaining which variables significantly affected firm performance, personal growth of entrepreneurs, and economic growth. Primary data were collected through a survey of randomly selected SME owners and principal decision makers from the list provided by the Department of Trade and Industry-National Capital Region (DTI-NCR). These data were encoded and processed through SPSS software package using descriptive, correlational, and evaluative designs with the aid of the following statistical tools: frequency and percentage distribution, summary statistics (mean, minimum, maximum), chi-square test for mean differences, multiple and logistic regression modeling, and MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance) for joint and separate interaction and main effects of the moderating variable.

This study concurred with Gibb and Davies (1990) in Pistrui (2002) that formal assistance, including training and consulting, did not have any significant impact on firm growth due to lack of empirical validation and the government's inability to understand how external factors and constraints impacted firm growth. More importantly, entrepreneurship enhancing programs and policies in the Philippines were directed mainly to start up ventures rather than older firms uninformed of these programs and policies. Even the developed countries suffered the same fate as entrepreneurship enhancing programs and policies they implemented have only resulted in modest levels of entrepreneurial activities. Through no fault of their own, institutions concerned with providing formal assistance and entrepreneurship support incentives (ESIs) failed to consider what entrepreneurs need in the context of their environments.

The major findings of this study indicate that in the NCR determinants of firm, personal and economic growth differ from those which availed and did not avail of SME services:
1) The form of ownership, non-managerial experience, nature of business, and the firm's age are significant determinants of firm growth for respondents who availed of SME services;
2) Formal education, average achievement, attendance in product skills (PD) and leadership seminars, previous entrepreneurial experience, and form of ownership are significant determinants of personal growth of SME owners and principal decision makers who availed of SME services. Factors that influenced personal growth of respondents who did not avail of any SME services include attendance in networking seminars and product development seminars, form of ownership, age, gender, and non-managerial experience;
3) For those which availed of SME services, the nature of business is the only
significant factor that explains their ability to contribute to economic growth. The form of ownership, nature of business and achievement orientation of SMEs that did not avail of SME services came out as significant factors that influence contribution to economic growth;
4) SME service provided by DTI is a significant moderating variable that affect firm's sales, profit, regular and contractual employee levels when combined with non-managerial experience, achievement orientation, form of ownership and nature of business;
5) SME services exerted moderating effect on the form of ownership that influence personal growth through membership and leadership in trade associations;
6) SME services significantly exerted moderating effect on the nature of business, specifically the wholesale and retail trade firms, that influence gross value added (GVA) contribution.

The findings of the study strongly recommended that the future environmental interventions undertaken by the government and SME owners should be consistent with the latter's ability and propensity to enterprise, the type and source of managerial complexities they experience in their respective business sectors and their form of ownership. Thus, entrepreneurial and business seminars focusing on product development, industry briefings, leadership, and executive development programs should
be made available to "emerging entrepreneurs" or SME owners who have low ability and high propensity to enterprise. On the other hand, the government should make socioeconomic conditions suitable for firm expansion and growth for "high growth entrepreneurs" or SME owners.

External and Internal Alignment Influence on the Performance of SMEs in the Philippine Furniture Industry
Dr. Edgardo N. Bolinao
Business Management Department

Strategic management scholars generally view environment scanning as a prerequisite for formulating effective business management strategies. Effective scanning of the environment is also seen by both large and small firms as necessary to the successful alignment of competitive strategies with environmental requirements and the achievement of the successful firm performance. This study of industry-specific small manufacturing firm examines contingency theories that link environmental conditions (industry life cycle stages), competitive strategy, owner characteristics (functional experience experiences), scanning (frequency and scope of scanning), and firm performance. The integrated alignment model incorporates: (1) external alignment (alignment between competitive strategies and an industry life cycle stage impact on firm performance); (2) integral alignment (alignment between competitive strategies and owner functional experience and their impact on firm performance); and (3) the impact on firm performance of frequency and scope of scanning on external alignment. The model is particularly useful to SMEs as it recognizes the main, often dominant role, that the owner of entrepreneur plays in small business operations.

Assessing the Economic and Poverty Impacts of Reducing Carbon Emissions in a Small Liberalized Developing Economy: The Case of Philippines
Mr. Erwin L. Corong
Economics Department

This study analyzes the economic and poverty effects of restraining carbon emissions in a small liberalized developing the Philippines. The simulation results indicate that tariff reduction reduces the cost of fossil fuels resulting in an increase in carbon emissions. The economic cost of reducing carbon emissions by imposing a carbon tax is minimal when compared to the no carbon tax scenario. This is because the reduction in consumer prices, as a result of tariff reduction outweighs the increase in production cost that emanates from the imposition of the carbon tax. Overall results suggest that a carbon tax aimed at maintaining a zero growth in carbon emissions does not significantly sampan economic activity, affect poverty, and impede the country's trade liberalization agenda. Thus, restricting carbon emissions via a carbon tax appears to be a sensible alternative that may satisfy the economic, poverty, and environmental objectives of the country.


College of Computer Studies

Design and Implementation of an Automatic Bilingual (English-Tagalog) Lexicon extraction Algorithm from Corpora
Dr. Rachel Edita O. Roxas
Software Technology Department

An improved alternative automated approach to (Tui, 2004) for the extraction of an English- Tagalog bilingual lexicon (or dictionary) from the comparable, non-parallel corpora is designed and implemented. Empirical tests show that the new approach has a potential to improve the translation quality of extracted terms to the lexicon.


College of Education

Corpus linguistics in the Philippines: Exemplary Analyses of the Philippine Component of the International Corpus English Project
Dr. Ma. Lourdes S. Bautista
Department of English and Applied Linguistics

This monograph is intended to introduce Filipino linguists, language educators, and even graduate students just becoming exposed to the study of language to a new way of doing linguistics, to its rewards and challenges.

This new way of doing linguistics, the new methodology is called "corpus linguistics" (Meyer 2002) and it requires two things: a relatively huge corpus of language data and a software program that can readily analyze the data. One such database is the Philippine component of the International Corpus of English (ICE-PHI), consisting of approximately one million words, and it is complemented by one-million-word parallel corpora from ICE - in this monograph, ICE-Singapore, ICE-Hong Kong, and ICE-Great Britain. For researchers interested in doing corpus linguistics, all theses corpora can be downloaded from the Internet at the ICE website http://www.ucl.ac.uk/English-usage/ice/index.htm.

The software program is a concordancing program - in this case, Oxford University Press' WordSmith Tools (version 4) - that can arrange the data in an organized form so that frequencies of occurrence can be easily determined together with information on the clustering of words. WordSmith Tools can be bought from Oxford University Press by accessing the OUP's website. For the information of DLSU faculty and students, the Department of English and Applied Linguistics of De La Salle University-Manila has one licensed copy housed in a computer in the English Language Laboratory.

On the other hand, ICE-Great Britain comes with a built-in software program with many more features in addition to concordancing, called the ICECUP or Corpus Utility Program. The ICECUP is capable of doing many kinds of analyses, but it can be used only with ICE-GB because only ICE-GB is a tagged and parsed corpus. How to use ICECUP is discussed and exemplified in great detail in Nelson et al. (2002). ICECUP can be made available to researchers who download ICE-GB from the ICE website.

This is the first monograph prepared in the Philippines showing the usefulness and sample results of doing corpus linguistics on Philippine data.

Chapter 1 ("Introducing corpus linguistics and the Philippine component of the International Corpus of English (ICE-PHI)") provides an overview of the International Corpus of English, and particularly of the Philippine corpus, and it also introduces the concordancing software, WordSmith Tools. The reason for taking up these topics in great detail is to encourage researchers, especially young academics, to use the corpus (fully aware of its possibilities and its limitations) and to lose their fear of new software.

The next two chapters exemplify analysis of the ICE corpora using the concordance program, moving from the relatively simple and piecemeal analysis of Chapter 2 to the more complex analysis of Chapter 3. In Chapter 2 ("Validating the putative features of Philippine English, with cross-reference to other Englishes"), features of Philippine English that have been mooted in the literature are subjected to frequency tests and these frequencies are placed side-by-side with the frequencies of these features in Singapore English, Hong Kong, and British English. Chapter 3 ("Exemplary analysis of ICE-PHI, with cross-reference to other corpora") replicates the analysis of Schneider of the Kolhapur corpus of Indian English (2000) in terms of the use of the subjunctive, the case marking of wh-pronouns, and the indefinite pronouns with -body and -one.

It is my hope that this work will make it possible for corpus linguistics to find new adherents in the Philippines and to generate new research using ICE-PHI that will illuminate the richness, the singularity, and the standardness of the variety of English we speak in the Philippines.


The Construction and Interpretation of Assignment Feedback in Higher Education
Dr. Josephine F. Mirador
Department of English and Applied Linguistics

This thesis attempts to present a micro-sociological study of the language of assignment feedback in the social situation of higher education. Using a combination of qualitative discourse analysis, concordance analysis and case approach, I determined the relationships between tutor intentions in assignment feedback and the interpretation of feedback by postgraduate students in the MA Education programme of the University College Chichester (UCC). In this objective, I used the text of assignment feedback as the window to tutor intentions and as the trigger to understand student interpretation.

My findings revealed twelve types of categories or moves that tutors adopt in writing assignment feedback, the meaning behind tutor use of particular linguistic forms and grammatical constructions, and the concerns of postgraduate students in their interpretation of assignment feedback. The main finding of the thesis involves as mismatch in tutor intentions and student interpretation. This means while tutors and postgraduate students agree in general about the purpose of the feedback sheet, their expectations as to which purpose should take precedence differ: tutors believe feedback essentially fulfills a psycho-emotional function whereas postgraduate students see that feedback's main function is for guidance.

This investigation has been originally conceptualized to look at the quality of assignment feedback in the MA programme in Education in UCC. This thesis then presents a model/framework with which to account for the relationship between tutor intentions and student interpretation in the social context of higher education in UCC. Aside from helping clarify the nature of the relationship between tutor intentions and student interpretation of assignment feedback, the model/framework presented here can be positively utilized to identify the components of the social order on which feedback in higher education anchors, and to highlight the value of looking at writing practices, power, and psycho-emotional support as key dimensions to explain the role of assignment feedback in higher education.


Defining the Filipino Texter and Texting Style: A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Text Messaging in the Philippines
Dr. Mildred Rojo-Laurilla
Department of English and Applied Linguistics

The study aimed at understanding and explaining the sociolinguistic dynamics of text messaging (texting or SMS) within the Philippine context. Using the theoretical framework of Hymes (1974) - the ethnography of speaking, the Filipino texters' text messages were described in terms of: (1) setting, (2) participants' sociodemographic characteristics, texting profile, perceptions about texting and the co-texters' profile, (3) ends, (4) act sequences particularly topic and turn taking, (5) key particularly code switching and abbreviation patterns, politeness and speech acts, (6) instrumentality, (7) norms of interpretation and interaction, and (8) genre. Using multiple regression analysis, it was revealed that the texters' age, sex and work were predictors of texting style. In terms of the discourse features, certain politeness markers, role, topics, speech acts and co-texter texting styles were also predictors of texting style. Perception and texting profile were weak predictors of Filipino texting style.

The study also proposes a sociolinguistic communication model of communication. The model shows the shared fields of experience of the texters and co-texters through symbolic interaction, as realized by constant communication over time (via texting) that allowed them to participate fully in the texting culture. What these texters and co-texters share in common are the same interpretations of the linguistic or discourse markers thus, producing a unique Filipino texting style.


Social Dimensions of Philippine Education
Dr. Adelaida L. Bago
Educational Leadership and Management Department

The project involves the development of a book that explores the uniquely Asian and Filipino foundations of education in the country today. The aim of the project was to develop an instructional material that could help students, educational practitioners, and educational leaders better understand why education is what it is today.

Right now available books and references explore universal principles and concepts and hardly contain information and discussion of the foundations of Philippine education that are unique and distinctively Asian, and more importantly, Filipino. As a consequence students have to be satisfied with literature on the foundations of education that is for the most part about western education and the factors responsible for its evolution to what it is today. Even those written by local authors in general, discuss the universal foundations of education in generic terms largely based on the perspective and experience of western countries. Because of the dearth of instructional materials on the foundations of the Philippine Education, the proponent decided to develop a book that would address this specific concern and would help answer the need of the educational community.

Thus the book is an attempt by the author to the need for an instructional material that will focus on the different social dimensions of Philippine education: philosophical, historical, psychological, and legal and their impact on curriculum, instruction, and structure/organization. In the writing of the book, the author reviewed local materials both conceptual and empirical in order to incorporate regional and local perspective and experiences in the discussion and related these whenever possible to universal foundations.

In order to achieve the objectives of the project, the book presents an extensive historical overview of Philippine Education in terms of three important concerns: curriculum, instruction (teaching-learning) and structure (organizational as well as educational levels) and the philosophical, psychological, sociological, legal and educational levels) and the philosophical, psychological, sociological, legal and leadership dimensions that underpin its growth and evolution. Below is the conceptual framework of the book.

Based on the framework, the book is divided into 6 chapters. Each chapter corresponds to a social dimension. The first chapter discusses the sociology of education. The five succeeding chapters focus on the different social dimensions: philosophical, historical, psychological, legal and leadership. The chapter on the leadership dimension provides a profile of the different educational leaders who steered the educational sector during the last century and their contributions to the evolution and growth of Philippine education.


A Proposed Framework for the Effective Management of Preschools
Ms. Lilia S. Bautista
Educational Leadership and Management Department

This study was aimed at the development of a framework for the effective management of preschools. Bases for the framework were the conceptual literature, primarily the Revised Head Start Performance Standards (RHSPS), and actual management practices in selected, top performing preschools in Metro Manila.

Results showed that the participant schools observed most of the practices in all the management areas covered by RHSPS. No management practices other than those covered by the RHSPS are observed in the participant schools. It is recommended that the proposed framework for the effective management of preschools be tried out in the local setting, particularly in Metro Manila. It is further recommended that the study be replicated in other parts of the country to validate the proposed framework.


Development of a Web-Based Courseware in Integrated Research and Statistics for the Executive Program in Educational Leadership and Management of DLSU-Manila
Dr. Flordeliza C. Reyes
Educational Leadership and Management Department

This is an URCO-funded research, which was inspired by the CREM training program on designing a basic, interactive, multimedia presentation using HyperStudio. Technical aspects, such as the graphic design of the hyperstacks and cases of some missing links, were enhanced and solved respectively, with the assistance of the Director and the staff of the center.

This courseware is primarily intended for the use of students of the predominantly on-line, PhD on Educational Leadership and Management Executive Program of ELMD. However, it may used by graduate students of education, educational management, and related in other higher education institutions.

This is a self-learning tool aimed at helping students understand and conduct research. As such, it allows them to navigate the entire course content in a non-linear fashion, based on their learning pace, abilities, interests, needs, and background knowledge of research and statistics. Reflection and self-test questions are interspersed with information materials to facilitate self-assessment and direction in accessing content. To help students who may lack the needed background to understand the more advanced topics on research and statistics, a review of basic or fundamental concepts has been included. In addition, to facilitate understanding of abstract concepts, the courseware presents an array of concrete examples and hyperlinks on: (a) conceptual and empirical literature available on the Internet, (b) research studies I have conducted and a few others done by my graduate students, and (c) lectures I have prepared for teaching graduate courses in statistics and research in DLSU-Manila and in conducting seminar-workshops for professional organizations and teachers in other educational institutions.

The courseware presents research both as a process (how to conduct research) and as a product (the research report). It was also so designed as to facilitate understanding of the applications and limitations of statistics in research; the different research methods (from applied to pure research) and techniques; the criteria for evaluating research, and the different ways of data analysis (qualitative and quantitative).

The courseware also includes PowerPoint presentations, with hyperlinks. Hence, aside from being a learning resource, this courseware may also be used as a teaching tool by teachers of graduate research and statistics.


Exploring Social Axioms and Personal Epistemologies in the Context of Philippine Schools
Dr. Allan B. I. Bernardo
Science Education Department

Adapting the Social Axioms Survey for Philippine Research: Validating Filipino and English Versions

The study was conducted was explore the validity of English and Filipino versions of the Social Axioms Survey (SAS) for studying the social beliefs for Filipino participants. An 80-item version of the SAS was used in the study, focusing on five scales corresponding to five dimensions of social beliefs defined by Leung et al. (2002): social cynicism, fate control, social complexity, religiosity, and reward for application. The SAS, which was in English, was translated into conversational Filipino. The 852 college students who participated in the study were asked to answer one of the two language versions. Based on the responses, the internal reliability of most of the scales of the two versions of the SAS were less than adequate. The reliability of the scales were improved by removing items with low item-total correlations, creating abridged versions of the two language versions of SAS. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with each of the two abridged language versions; the results were mixed for both language versions, with only some indexes indicating good fit with the data. The results indicate that the Filipino and English versions of the SAS may be tapping the dimensions of fate control and social cynicism in different ways. The discussions focussed on the possible explanations for the language differences related to these two scales, and on the usefulness of the abridged versions for studying social beliefs of Filipinos. 

Exploring Epistemological Beliefs of Bilingual Filipino Preservice Teachers in the English Filipino Languages

The study investigated the epistemological beliefs of bilingual Filipino preservice teachers using Filipino and English versions of the Schommer Epistemological Questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to determine the dimensions and structure of the epistemological beliefs of 864 preservice teachers. The results revealed two factors: Fixed Ability and Simple Knowledge, and that the same factors were found using the Filipino and English versions of the questionnaire. There were gender differences in the beliefs of those who answered the questionnaire in Filipino, and the two factors were correlated to specific social axioms or beliefs (social complexity, religiosity, and reward for application). The results were discussed in terms of how they contribute to the growing evidence regarding the possible problems with particular multidimensional theories and quantitative measures of epistemological beliefs. But the results also indicate how the specific epistemological beliefs of the Filipino preservice teachers may be problematic as they might be associated with teaching behaviors that do not promote deeper learning and more critical thinking among Filipino students.

Social Axioms, Orientation of Achievement Motives, and Hope Influence Filipino Students' Achievement Goals

The study was conducted to verify hypotheses on the relationship between social beliefs (social axioms), orientation of achievement motives, hope, and different achievement goals. Hypotheses were based on the assumptions of self-determination theory that specify a dialectical relationship between motivations and the environment. In particular, students' beliefs about whether the social environment is supportive of either autonomous or relatedness needs was hypothesized to influence achievement goals. 257 students completed questionnaires on (a) social axioms, (b) individual vs. social-oriented achievement motives, (c) hope, and (d) achievement goals. Their responses were used to verify hypothesized path models leading to three types of achievement goals. The results provide some support for the hypotheses that students who hold beliefs that the social environment support self-instrumentality (reward for application, social complexity, and the opposite of social cynicism) develop more individual-oriented motives and stronger sense of hope, and adopt mastery goals. On the other hand, students who hold beliefs that the social environment supports social-instrumentality and not autonomy (reward for application, fate control, and religiosity) develop more social-oriented motives, and adopt performance goals. 

A Tracer Study of the PhD Graduates of the College of Education, 1990-2005
Dr. Bee Ching Ong Kian Koc
Science Education Department

The main purpose of this study is to trace the whereabouts of the PhD graduates produced by the Science Education Department of the College of Education in terms of their profession growth and job positions in the academe and their socio-demographic-economics status. The evaluation was based on the objectives of the PhD in Science Education programs to produce science educators and researchers imbued with quality education in there area of specialization, proficient with content and teaching pedagogy and ready to do their share in transforming society. Descriptive-survey method was employed using researcher-made survey questionnaire to achieve the objectives of the study. A follow-up interview was done to gather additional information about the usefulness of the curriculum to their job position and job satisfaction. The respondents include about 70 doctoral graduates from 1990-2005, whose names and addresses were retrieved from the registrar's records. The data gathered from the survey questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Only 32 survey questionnaires were returned and this represents 47% retrieval rate. The findings of the study indicated that all graduates have stable teaching job and all doing research. About 90% indicated that they used their knowledge and skills to a high extent either in teaching-learning process or in doing administrative work. The female respondents had twice as high participation rate in professional organization than male respondents in terms of membership, attendance in conferences, and position held in the organizations. It further reveals that female respondents had more scholarly researches, either published or unpublished, than male respondents. Moreover, only female respondents have completed researches with foreign institutions. As a whole, the respondents of the study had job stability and financial stability. Majority of them had their own house and computer with printer and other educational equipments needed in their teaching profession.


College of Liberal Arts

The Integration of Domestic Violence Issues in the Nursing Curriculum: Effects Of the Use of Teachers' Guides and Student Learning Modules on the Faculty and Students In Selected Philippine Nursing Colleges 
Dr. Pilar Ramos-Jimenez
Behavioral Sciences

The integration of domestic vioLence issues into the nursing curricuLum of SitLiman University was a piLot project that was initiated in I 997 to 2000 by De La SaLLe University-SociaL DeveLopment Research Center's Task Force on SociaL Science 8 Reproductive HeaLth (TFSSRH), a smaLL group comprising of health professionaLs and sociaL scientists, a Lawyer, and representatives of women's organizations. This project was undertaken in coLLaboration with the Association of Deans of Philippine CoLLege of Nursing (ADPCN) with funding from The Ford Foundation (TFF) and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). ELeven student Learning modules and teachers' guides for nine nursing subjects were written by seLected SiLLiman University's sociaL science and nursing facuLty members in partnership with the TFSSRH. These moduLes were pubLished and subsequentLy endorsed by ADPCN in its annuaL convention in 2000. In June 2002, SiLliman University conducted a one-week training for seLected nursing schooLs in the use of the foregoing tooLs for their respective institutions.

The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of the use of the student Learning moduLes and teachers' guides on the facuLty and students of five nursing schooLs (two in Luzon, two in the Visayas, and one in Mindanao) that participated in the June 2002 training at SiLLiman University. SpecificaLLy, the study examined the (a) status, strategies and processes adopted by the nursing schooLs.in utiLizing the Learning tooLs, (b) the facuLty and students' perceived beneficiaL effects and difficuLties using the foregoing tooLs, (c) the strategies used by the facuLty to overcome their difficuLties, (d) indicators used by the nursing schooLs to assess the competencies of their graduates, and (e) sustainabiLity and prospects of the continued use of the integrated tooLs in the seLected nursing institutions. Key informant interviews with schools administrators and focus group discussion with facuLty and students were the main methods used in the study. The coordinator of the Mindanao Working Group on Reproductive HeaLth, gender and sexuaLity, a consortium of tertiary academic institutions in the island, was interviewed because of the current effort of the working group in training new nursing colleges in the use of the Learning tooLs in partnership with SiLtiman University's faculty-writers.

The findings of the study showed that only SilLiman University's College of Nursing, the pilot institution, completely utiLized the student Learning modules and teachers' guides. Two nursing schools partialLy used some learning tools in selected subjects. The other two schools used them mainly as references. One of these schools had developed its own psychology module which had incorporated domestic violence issues while the other had shifted to problem-based learning approach.

The learning tools were assessed by the facuLty of the schools that fully or partially used them, as student friendly. They served as eye openers to students regarding this public health issue. They claimed that students shared personal experiences in class and they discussed what they had learned with their parents and other family members. They were also able to relate with survivors during their community work. They could easily identify features of an abused woman or child and make the appropriate referrals. When students have personal domestic problems, teachers would refer them to their school's guidance and counseling office. However, it was expressed by a nursing school administrator that the staff from this unit needed gender-sensitivity training to enable them to become more sensitive to gender and sexuality issues confronting male and female nursing students.

The students from the foregoing schools, on the other hand, claimed that the lessons regarding domestic violence broadened their perspectives and improved their skills in identifying DV situations and in understanding the contexts of survivors. Some students said that they had become advocates within and outside their families. They assessed that they would become good nurses in the future because they would be able to manage survivors of domestic violence. They also understood the situation of the DV perpetrators.

There appears to be some qualitative differences in the responses of students from schools that fully or partially utilized the learning materials compared to those who used these tools as references only. The former seem to have a better grasp of the concepts including the gender and cultural dimension of domestic violence and the responsibilities as well as nursing tasks of caring for DV survivors.

The difficulties raised by both the faculty and students were related to the contents of the modules and some logistical constraints posed by the nursing curriculum. The faculty found it difficult to follow the suggested duration or time in using each module because of the numerous additional concepts required in the nursing curriculum. They try to manage this difficulty by replacing suggested exercises with other shorter activities or by holding class discussions in laboratory classes which have more time allotment. They also noted outdated data of DV cases, policies, and programs. They managed this difficulty by searching for new or current data or by inviting external resource persons such as the police, lawyers, health professionals or local government officials. Due to current high demand for nurses abroad, the nursing schools are experiencing a rapid turnover of its faculty. This development calls for the added task of training new teachers who are not only competent but also gender and culture-sensitive in imparting the values, concepts and tools of the profession to nursing students.

Aside from dated information, some students mentioned that their lessons appeared redundant because of the practice of reviewing previous topics prior to the introduction of new lessons. Other difficulties mentioned was the absence of clear or specific guidelines on what to do when confronted with DV cases, the unattractive format and high cost of the modules (especially in the school where every nursing student was required to procure her own copy.)

No major revisions have been made regarding the contents of the modules except the update of some facts and figures. The Mindanao Working Group added new data and descriptions about the situation of Muslims and indigenous people in Mindanao to ensure that the learning materials are relevant to the social context of these population groups in the island.

No indicators were developed by the nursing schools to measure the competencies of the nursing graduates and practitioners. The nursing schools will continue using the modules in the current manner that these are utilized (either totally or partially or as references). The faculty-writers, however planned to revisit and update the modules. Aside from conducting training for nursing schools in the use of the student learning modules and teachers' guides, the Mindanao Working Group has pushed forward the integration of gender, sexuality and RH in other academic fields (e.g., social work, mass communication and development communication)-implying that curricular integration has become a useful strategy in the inclusion of public health issues in pre-service training.

Pagsipat at Teknika ng Maikling Kuwento, Malikhaing Sanaysay, at Iskrip at mga Piling Akda
Dr. Fanny A. Garcia
Filipino Department

Sa karaniwan ay may magkabilang mukha ang pagtingin sa mga manunulat, sa larangan ng pagsusulat, particular ang malikhaing manunulat/malikhaing pagsulat.

Sa isang banda, ang romantisadong pananaw na: isinisilang sa mundo ang sadyang mga magiging manunulat, espesyal sila; isang espesyal na larangan ang pagsusulat. Nagsusulong sa ganitong pananaw ang kanonisasyon ng sistema ng edukasyon sa mgailing akda/manunulat (batay umano sa mga pamantayang unibersal; batay rin madalas sa gayo't ganitong parangal at gantimpala sa pagsulat), gayundin ang mga patungkol na "dakilang mga akda/manunulat" ng mundo, ng gayo't gayong bansa o lahi o panahon.

Sa kabilang banda ay ang pananaw na ang malikhaing manunulat, ang larangan ng malikhaing pagsulat ay kaugnay ng kahirapan at pagkamiserable. Ang isang manunulat ay isang nilalang na di praktikal at lagging nangangarap nang gising; sarili man lang niya'y hindi niya kayang buhayin nang komportable. Sa opinyon ng marami, maliban na lang kung may iba pang pagkakakitaan, ang malikhaing pagsulat ay isang larangang dapat iwasan.

Sa katunayan, lahat naman tayo ay mga "manunulat"; sa particular, lahat namantayo ang mga "kwentista". Sa pagkausap natin sa iba't ibang tao sa ating paligid, tayo ay mga kuwentista; sa pagkausap sa ating sarili ay kuwentista rin tayo. Lagi't lagi nating di malay (unconsciously) na ginagamit ang mga pormal na sangkap ng anyo/genre ng maikling kuwento: karakterisasyon, tagpuna, plot, tema, atbp. Lagi't lagi, at sa buong panahon ng ating buhay.

May natural na bigkis ang pagkukuwento-kuwento sa tunay na buhay at ang pormal na anyo ng mailking kuwento at masasabi ring may panlabas mang pagkakaiba ang mga anyo ng pampanitikang sanysay (literary essay) at iskrip, sa esensya ay magkakapamilya pa rin ang mga ito: pare-parehong nagkukuwento, pare-parehong may ikinikuwento. Pare-parehong may mga sangkap na kabahagi ng isa't isa (exposisyon, dayalogo, tagpuan, plot, atmospera, atbp.) kaya ang pagiging malay sa mga kuwento-kuwento ng tunay na buhay (tagapagkuwento man o basta masugid na tagapakinig) at ang malay na pag-aaral kung paano sumulat ng maikling kuwento, matutuklasan ng maraming manunulat, ay daan na rin palapit sa pampanitikang sanaysay at iskrip.

Lahat tayo ay magkasabay na estudyante at/o praktisyoner ng malikhaing pagsulat. "Kuwentista" tayo sa tunay na buhay. Sa bawat pagbasa natin ng mga pampanitikang akda, sa bawat panonood natin ng dula/tv/pelikula, pakikinig ng mga drama sa radio ay indirek na nag-aaral na tayo kung paano magsulat sa mga anyong ito.

Bawat buhay ay mayamang bukal ng karanasan na lagi't lagging mapagkukunan ng material na maikukuwento, maisusulat. Ang pagiging malay ng mas marami sa ating likas na pagigin "kuwentista" upang mabigyan ng nakasulat na anyo ang mayamang bukal at mina ng karanasan, mula man sa ating mismong buhay at/o ng iba, o mula sa malikhaing interaksyon ng realidad at ng imahinasyon, ay magbubunga ng mas maraming akda, mas maraming manunulat. "Hayaang bumukadkad ang sandaang bulaklak," wika nga ng isang kilalang Asyano. Ito ang demokratisasyon sa larangan ng mailkhaing pagsulat.

Kailangang lapitan ang bukal ng malikhaing pagsulat nang walang romantisado o biased na pananaw upang tunay na manamnam at maginhawahan sa dalisay at lamig ng tubig nito.


Cyberkultura ng Kabataan sa Kamaynilaan: Isang Empirikal at Kwalitatibong Pag-aaral sa Penomenon ng Internet
Dr. Rhoderick V. Nuncio
Filipino Department

Ang pag-aaral na ito'y tungkol sa pag-unawa sa phenomenon ng Internet na tumatalakay sa demograpiya ng gumagamit nito, sa sakop at hanggang ng impluwensya nito, at sa usapin ng kapangyarihang nagpapabago sa ugnayang domestiko't panlipunan ng kabataan. Layunin ng pag-aaral na ito na maitala ang empirical na datos mula sa masusing imbestigasyon ng penomenon hinggil sa Internet o cyberspace, at kritikal na masuri ito gamit ang iba pang metodong kwalitatibo tulad ng interbyu, at focus-group discussion. Mahalaga na makakalap o makatala ng datos mula sa administrasyon ng sarbey sa piling tagasagot sa dahilang walang malinaw at tiyak pang demograpiya o profayl na magagamit sa kung sinu-sino, ilan at kung nasaan ang gumagamit ng Internet. Sa ganitong dahilan, pinukaw ng pananaliksik ang profayl ng mga "estudyanteng gumagamit ng Internet" (EGI). Mula rito, inilapat ang isang sosyo-kultural na lapit sa pagbibigay-diin sa particular na karanasan at pananaw-mundo ng mga kabataang gumagamit ng email, chat, website, at ibang nahuhumaling sa online games.


Taliba ni Inang Bayan: Ang Makatang Mandirigma na si Diego Moxica, Isang Nabaon sa Limot na Bayani ng 1896 Himagsikan
Dr. Luis C. Dery
History Department

Paunang Salita:
Marami na ring nalimbag na pag-aaral tungkol sa 1896 Himagsikan. Subalit sa kabila nito at nang mga panawagan ng mga naunang historyador, kagaya nina Gregorio Zaide, Teodoro Agoncillo, Esteban de Ocampo, Samuel Tan, atbp. Na isulat ang kasaysayan ng lahing Pilipino mula sa maka-Pilipinong pananaw nananatili na napakarami pa ring aspeto ng nasabing makasaysayang panahon ang nananatiling nakatago sa kaalaman ng Sambayanang Pilipino. Isa sa mga ito ay ang tungkol sa napakaraming mga tunay na bayani ng 1896 Himagsikan na nabaon sa limot. Pangunahin sa kanila si G. Giego Moxica, ang tunay na nagsalin sa wikang Tagalog ng "Ultimo Adios" ni Dr. Jose P. Rizal. Layunin ng may-katha ng sanaysay na ito na ilantad ang maraming mga impormasyon tungkol kay G. Diego Moxica, lalung-lalo na ang mga tula't kundimang kinatha niya, upang sa ganitong paraan ay maihayag ang pagiging tunay niyang bayani ng lahing Pilipino. Higit sa lahat, layunin ng sanysay na ito na bigyang-diin ang natatangi niyang katauhan-ang pagiging makatang-mandirigma niya. Sa pamamagitan ni Diego Moxica, mailalantad ang isang natatanging larawan ng 1896 Himagsikan at ito'y ang larawan ng marami sa ating mga ninunong rebolusyonaryo ang ipinaglaban ang kalayaan n gating lupang Tinubuan hindi lang sa pamamagitan ng itak, baril o sibat kundi sa pamamagitan din ng paghawak ng lapis at papel bilang sandata laban sa mga dayuhang mananakop.


The Bearer of Pax Americana: The Philippine Career of William Howard Taft, 1900-1903
Dr. Rene R. Escalante
History Department

The primary concern of the book is to discuss the political career of Taft in the Philippines. The discussions revolve around the policies and programs that he used to pacify the Filipinos and convince them to accept American rule. He is portrayed as a legislator, chief executive, troubleshooter, lobbyist, diplomat, judge and propagandist. Towards the end, the book concludes that Taft is a major character in Philippine history because he orchestrated the establishment of American colonial institution in the Philippines, an episode in Philippine history that has had great effect on the lives of Filipinos until the present time.

The main body of this research project is divided into four major parts. First, it discusses the role of Taft in the Second Philippine Commission. Specifically, it focuses on the inquiry of the Commission and its recommendation to the Committee of Insular Affairs. Second, it discusses the role of Taft in the implementation of McKinley's "Benevolent Assimilation" policy. Taft is presented as an effective pacifier and colonial administrator. Third, the book discusses Taft's relationship with the Catholic Church. During the first decade of American rule, the Church was beset with numerous problems and a lot of them had something to do with their property. Despite the principle of separation of Church and State, Taft intervened in all these issues and many of them were settled amicably. Lastly, the book tackles the achievements of Taft as a colonial bureaucrat. Included in the discussion are his public health programs, tariff policies, educational reforms, infrastructure projects and political innovations.

The documents used in reconstructing the career of Taft in the Philippine were mostly government publications written by colonial officials. The most significant of them are the Report of the Taft Philippine Commission, Report of the Philippine Commission, Annual Report of the Governor General, The Correspondences Between Taft and the Holy See, Senate Document 190 and the Congressional Records of the United States of America. The author also used the personal letters of Taft, which are currently deposited in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. He also consulted the memoirs of some American authors who were in the Philippines during the first decade of the 20th century like Daniel Williams, Edith Moses, Helen Taft, James Blount, David Barrows, George Dewey, Charles Burke Elliott, William Cameron Forbes, Dean Worcester and a few others. To further enrich the narrative, he also consulted the leading newspapers during this period and the most useful of them are the New York Times, Manila Times, Cablenews American and the Manila American.


Understanding Policy Shift: Class Interests, Exogenous Pressure, and Policy Reform in the Philippines
Dr. Dennis D. Trinidad
International Studies Department

The paper is a theoretical discourse on policy shift, defined as the turning point or threshold by which policymaking agents abandon old policy preferences in favor of new ones. It contends that policy shift is contingent upon two factors: (1) the nature of elite interests, and (2) exogenous pressures like world prices and economic crises. The dismantling of cohesive elite interests is essential before policy shift could take place. Exogenous pressures can help achieve this by altering the settings which define these interests.

Specifically, the paper examines the liberalization of trade and investment in the Philippines as an episode of policy shift. In the 1980s, the sudden reversal of international prices of agricultural products forced many agrarian elites to abandon agriculture and shift to other more lucrative business ventures like services and manufacturing. In the process, they explored new areas of interest and formulated corresponding sets of policy preferences. Against this backdrop and under a new constitution, former President Fidel V. Ramos and his successors pursued liberalization. The trend toward further economic liberalization became irreversible due to the country's commitment to international agreements such as World Trade Organization, ASEAN Free Trade Area, ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement and the proposed Philippine-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement.


The S/subjects of the Nation in Philippine Kritika Dis-Courses from Lucila V. Hosillos, Bienvenido L. Lumbera, Gemino H. Abad, Soledad S. Reyes, Virgilio S. Almario, and Epifanio San Juan, Jr.
Dr. David Jonathan Y. Bayot
Literature Department

The present study is guided by two goals: (1) to represent the theory-in-praxis-towards-theory of six major Filipino critics - Lucila V. Hosillos, Bienvenido L. Lumbera, Gemino H. Abad, Soledad S. Reyes, Virgilio S. Almario, and Epifanio San Juan, Jr. - on the "national question" of Philippine literature; and (2) to argue the political usefulness of this quest to the trajectory of inquiries and understandings of this subject called "national literature," as well as to the S/subjects who have been and will be called to this process of literally production, consumption, definition, and re-definition.

In pursuit of the national category of the "Philippine" via the dis-courses of six Filipino critics, the present project seeks to contribute to the construction of a history of the subject and the many S/subjects of "Philippine-nation."

After a representation of the Philippine critical ground as characterized by what Isagani R. Cruz calls the phenomenon of "the other Other," as well as re-inscription of the term in the event and eventually of "critical-in-difference." each subsequent chapter focuses on one critic and locates his/her central trope in the dis-courses of the "nationality" of Philippine literature: Hosillos on her notion of "originality as vengeance in Philippine literature" along a concentric-comparativist framework; Lumbera on his definition of the national literature as a construct and a staging in the various stages of national assertion against colonization; Abad on his native clearing of Philippine literature, specifically, poetry in and from English; Reyes on her deconstruction and reconstruction of the "popular" room of enchantment with the modality of romance; Almario's on his critical act c/siting of the native literary tradition as a weapon of engagement with colonial hegemony on the ground of Piedras Platas; and San Juan on his mediation of history and nation to the Filipino people in the belly of the beast.

The study sumps up the interventions of the six Filipino critics and concludes with a provisional paradigm for Philippine kritika.


Managing Work Life Balance: A Study of Selected Filipino Employees within Metro Manila
Dr. Laurene Chua-Garcia
Psychology Department

The study examined what model life balance Filipino workers employed in selected organization within Metro Manila perceived themselves as having achieved. Factors achieved to assist and hinder work life balance were also identified. Then, the perceived effects of individual and situational differences on work life balance were explored. Finally, the advantages as well as disadvantages to organizations of the achievement or non-achievement of work life balance were identified.

A total of 300 respondents coming from various businesses were used for this study. First a survey was implemented then interviews were conducted. Data collected was qualitatively analyzed.

The model of work life balance identified by most of the respondents in the study was: Work life and family life are completely independent of each other. This was closely followed with the model, which states: Work life and family life are both satisfying. Work variables, particularly financial stability, were perceived as the factors that assist in the achievement of work life balance. On the other hand, the biggest hindrance to the achievement of work life balance was the absence of career development at the place of employment that included an unsatisfactory compensation and benefits package. No significant results were obtained for individual differences such as gender and educational attainment. Situational differences such as employment and family conditions validated previous researches while contributing some interesting new insights from a cultural perspective on gender roles in the household economy and childcare. Both organizational performance and organizational productivity were identified as advantages to organizations when work life balance was achieved as well as disadvantages to organizations when work life balance was not achieved.


Factors Involved in the Use of Second Language Learning Strategies and Oral Proficiency Among Taiwanese Students in Taiwan and in the Philippines
Dr. Moises Kirk de Carvalho Filho 
Mr. Carlo P. Magno 
Ms. Jennifer Ann L. Lajom
Ms. Katrine Bunagan
Psychology Department

The study investigated some factors (level of exposure to second language (L2), metacognitive awareness, and country) that may affect the use of L2 learning strategies among Taiwanese students living in Taiwan and in the Philippines who use English as a second language. The learning strategies that best predict the oral proficiency in English was also investigated. The study compared 80 Taiwanese students studying in the Philippine and 66 Taiwanese students studying in Taiwan on their metacognitive knowledge awareness, language learning strategy use, and oral proficiency. It was found in the study that English exposure and country were significant predictors of second language learning strategy. Students living and studying in the Philippines with high English exposure predicts oral proficiency that their counterparts in Taiwan. Compensation, affective, memory and metacognitive language strategies significantly predict oral proficiency (R=.58) with a fair goodness of fit (Adjusted R2=.303).


Adolescent Goal Achievement in the Face of Parental Resistance
Ms. May Ann Garo-Santiago
Ms. Jan Florence Abuid
Psychology Department

This study describes early and late adolescents' power conceptions, behaviors and resources in the face of parental resistance. Data were gathered through 4 Focus Group Discussions with two groups from the early adolescent period (11-14 years old; 8 females and 8 males) and two groups from the late adolescent period (188-22 years old; 9 females and 7 males). Qualitative analysis revealed that parents disapprove of adolescents' goals, primarily if these interfere with academics and threaten the adolescents' safety. To achieve their intentions, early and late adolescents both use the power of self-expression, with oppositional behaviors more common in late adolescents and appeal to emotion more apparent in females. They draw resources from personal attributes, situational factors and their peers, in order to attain their goals. Early adolescents view power strivings in more negative ways while late adolescents view these as their right and indicative of competence, especially if practiced within certain limitations. The implications of these findings in family relationships, parenting and counseling practices are discussed.


Tingguian Funerary Practices and Beliefs: Their Value-Integration Into The Family and Community Life and Possible Implications 
Dr. Luis C. Sembrano
Theology and Religious Education Department

As an ethnographic study, but drawing on other historical and contemporary materials, identifies the elements of the upland Tingguian funerary practices and beliefs and describes how the upland Tingguians give importance to such practices, as well as how they integrate the values gained from these indigenous practices into their family and community.

The aim of the study is to reveal important information for missionaries, priests, and lay partners, who are engaged in the building of Christian communities among ethnic minorities or indigenous peoples.

Likewise, in order to awaken the interest among Christians on the beauty and the values of their cultural heritage which have been handed to them for many generations by their ancestors even before the Spaniards colonized the Philippines.

The research seeks to strengthen the Tingguian's communal identity and family values as manifested in their funerary beliefs, ritual, and practices, while also aiming to enrich the Christian funerary practices by integrating Tingguian ritual practices in their liturgy.

Finally, this will also help the society to see its responsibility to enrich and strengthen the national identity through a better understanding of the culture contributed by indigenous groups.


Pangangatawan: Isang Paglalarawan ng 'Spirituality' sa Kontekstong Pilipino
Dr. Jose M. de Mesa 
Theology and Religious Education Department

Ang pag-unawa ay pag-unawang kontekstuwal, may lugar at may panahon. Hindi naiiba ang tinatawag sa Ingles na "spirituality" sa simulaing ito. Sa dulog kontekstuwal, inuunawa ang isang bagay sa liwanag ng mga karanasang cultural at ng Pananampalatayang Hudio-Kristiyano. Sa pangkalahatan, masasabi natin na ang "spirituality" ay tumutukoy sa pamumuhay Kristiyano. Sa akdang ito, tatangkain unawain ang pamumuhay na ito sa pamamagitan ng konsepto't katagang "pangangatawan." Sa ganitong dulog, matitiyak ang pakikiisa natin sa mahaba at malawak na tradisyon ng Kristiyanismo hinggil sa "spirituality" sa isang banda, at ang pagkakaugat naman natin sa ating kultura sa kabilang banda.

Pagkatapos ilahad ang iba't ibang posibleng interpretasyon ng "spirituality" na matatagpuan sa mga babasahing teolohiko, ilalahad ng akda ang kahinaan na masusumpungan sa katagang "spirituality." Sa pagsasaalang-alang sa mga nabanggit na kahinaan, imumungkahi ng sanaysay ang isang kontesktuwal na pag-unawa sa "spirituality." Sa pananaw na ito ang kabanalan ay naiisakatuparan sa pangkaraniwang karanasan ng mga tao sa lupa. Matapos isalaysay ang ilang mga karanasan na may kinalaman sa tinatawag na "spirituality," ipaliliwanag sa akda ang konsepto at katagang "pangangatawan" bilang natatanging kontekstuwal na pagsasalarawan ng pamumuhay Kristiyano o "spirituality." Ang "pangangatawan" ay ayon du lamang sa pangangatawan ng Diyos sa katauhan ni Hesus, kundi sa aktibo ring pagtanaw sa pagiging tao ng mga Pilipino.

Christianity and Culture in Asia
Dr. Jose M. de Mesa
Theology and Religious Education Department

As introduction, the project first states the focus and interconnections of the topic "Christianity and Culture in Asia." It then discusses the significance of the changed perspective on culture from a classical view to one that is empirical, and the role of language in theologizing. The framework to illustrate the various types of relationship to culture hat Asian theologies exhibit is presented and explained next.

The typology proposed by H. Richard Niebuhr is followed. Utilizing the categories of "Christ" and "Culture," it classifies the different ways or models of interaction between the two: Christ against culture, Christ of culture, Christ above culture, Christ and culture in paradox and Christ the transformer of culture. Two examples are given for each models. Cognizant of the weakness of the typology, the project has reinterpreted the models in the light of the actual examples of theologizing vis-à-vis culture in Asia. It has also taken into account the Asian theological concern regarding widespread poverty in Asia as well as the development of feminist theology in Asia.

The Chinese rites controversy and the rise of Dalit theologizing in India exemplify, in their own respective ways, the antagonistic stance of the Gospel towards culture. In the first denial of one's culture is required to turn to the Gospel. And in the second illustration of the model, the Gospel is set against a culture that is experienced as oppressive.

In the Christ of culture model folk Catholicism in the Philippine and the "Madah Bakti" project in Indonesia particularize how culture, seen as fundamentally good and valuable, is utilized to give an inculturated expression to the Catholic faith. While the former may be characterized as a spontaneous process, the latter may be described as a deliberate effort.

Although the basic goodness of culture is recognized by the Christ above culture model, the Gospel is regarded as perfecting the culture. Thus, in the first example the cyclical orientation of nature in Thailand is challenged by the purposeful action of God in history. In the second illustration of the model Jesuit missionary Alexander de Rhodes is described as harnessing the values of the Vietnamese culture for the sake of the Gospel.

The twin loyalties to Gospel and culture are given expression in the model Christ and culture in paradox. "I love two J's and no third; one is Jesus, and the other is Japan," says Uchimura Kanzo in his theology. For him loyalty to Jesus could never mean disloyalty to Japan. The Asian theology of harmony articulated by the Federation of Asian Bishops' Conferences also illustrates this fidelity to the Gospel, particularly its prophetic dimension, as well as to Asian values.

Two theologies of liberation are discussed in the model Christ the transformer of culture. First, the Asian feminist movement which questions the patriarchal mentality and structures both in the church and in society. Second, Aloysius Pieris proposes a uniquely Asian approach to liberation that seriously takes into account Asian poverty and religiosity in an integrated fasion.


College of Engineering

Dechlorination of Trichloroethylene (TCE) Using Zero-Valent Iron
Ms. Wilheliza A. Baraoidan
Chemical Engineering Department

Groundwater, contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE), a suspected carcinogenic cleaning solvent, is still a global environmental concern. An efficient and economical method for the remediation of the pollutant is therefore desired. Treatment of TCE by zero-valent metals has emerged a popular technology. Iron is cheap, non-toxic, readily- available and had been found to work over a wide range of chlorinated solvents.
Reduction of TCE using zero-valent iron is promoted by the oxidation of iron. When iron is oxidized in the presence of water, electrons are released and then transferred for the dechlorination of TCE.
The general objective of this study is to investigate on the dechlorination of TCE using zero-valent iron in powdered form, and, in the form of shavings. Simulated TCE solution of initial concentration 5 ppm was mixed with iron powder, finer than 100 mesh, in 120-mL serum bottles. The pH of the solution was varied at 5, 7 and 9. The amount of iron powder was also varied at 10, 12.5 and 15 mg powder per mL of TCE solution. The water used was distilled de-ionized water. On the other hand, 50 grams of iron shavings were used as materials packed in a glass column passed with simulated TCE solutions. The thickness of the shavings was varied at 1mm, the thinnest they could be processed without breaking, and 1.5mm. The iron shavings were also subjected to different preparations: pretreated with 0.1 M NaCl solution and untreated. The water used was de-oxygenated, de-ionized distilled water. Samples taken at different intervals were analyzed for TCE and chloride ion concentrations.
Results showed a decrease in the concentration of TCE accompanied by the formation and increase in chloride ion concentration as time went by, confirming the dechlorination of TCE. Degradation was possible when the pH of the solution was 7 and below; better dechlorination was observed with the thinnest iron shavings possible and with the said shavings subjected to pretreatment with brine solution. 

Paper Sludge as Replacement of Fine Aggregates in Fresh Concrete Used in Low Cost Housing Projects
Mr. Ronaldo S. Gallardo
Civil Engineering Department

The escalating generation of solid waste brought about by fast economic growth and rapid urbanization is the responsibility of all sectors of society. The problem of today's solid waste, if improperly handled, carries implications not only for our environment but also for the health and well being of future generations. When waste ends up where it is not supposed to be, it becomes useless, causes pollution and poses health risks. When it is used and put in the right place, it becomes a valuable resource. In this study the researchers have focused their investigations on the viability of using paper sludge, an industrial waste generated by paper mills factories as an alternative material applied as partial replacement of fine aggregates in manufacturing fresh concrete intended to be used for low cost housing projects. The research will use the paper sludge from Trust International Paper Corporation (TIPCO) as partial replacement of fine aggregates material in the production of concrete, which is the most predominant and common construction product. This study focuses on the following criteria; comparison of physical properties which includes gradation, moisture content, specific gravity and absorption of paper sludge versus ordinary river sand, the chemical properties and the quality and durability of concrete with paper sludge in terms of compressive strength, tensile and flexural strength. Based from results of the study, paper sludge can be used as substitute for fine aggregates in fresh concrete but shall be limited to non-load bearing concrete products like CHB mortar filler, plastering materials, decorative mouldings and floor slabs used in low cost housing projects. The most suitable mix proportion is the 5% to 10% replacement of paper sludge to fine aggregates, which resulted in 10% to 20% reduction of concrete strength. The reduction of concrete strength can be attributed to the high water absorption and the absence of silica compound in paper sludge, which is essential for bonding and structuring of fresh concrete.


Basic Structural Performance Index of Earthquake-Damaged Reinforcement Concrete Buildings
Dr. Andres W.C. Oreta
Civil Engineering Department

Civil and structural engineers must address the need of assessing the seismic safety of existing buildings. Given the large number of buildings in the metropolis, it is clear that detailed seismic inspection and seismic upgrading or retrofitting cannot be advanced simultaneously. A detailed seismic inspection is costly and time-consuming. Seismic strengthening of existing structures is more costly. It is thus important that a brief method of seismic screening of buildings be done to determine which buildings are at greatest risk, and hence must be given priority in a detailed seismic evaluation and possible retrofitting.

The level-1 seismic screening of the Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ) uses a basic structural performance index (BSPI) to rank low-rise to medium-rise reinforced concrete buildings according to potential seismic hazards. How to use the index to judge which buildings are potentially hazardous need to be given further study especially in the Philippine setting. The present study aims to provide information on the value of BSPI for earthquake-damaged buildings. It is assumed that if an existing building has an index close to that of a damaged building then the building may be classified as "potentially hazardous building" - meaning it should be given immediate attention for a detailed seismic inspection.

The study focuses on the evaluation of the BSPI of RC buildings damaged at Baguio City during the July 16, 1990 Luzon Earthquake. Through the documented photos of the buildings, sketches of building plans and descriptions of the damages found in the literature, an estimate was made on the BSPI of the damaged buildings at the ground floor. By knowing the index at the ground floor of the damaged buildings, a critical or cut-off value can be determined to guide the engineer or decision maker on whether a building will be subjected to a more detailed seismic inspection. Based on the study, index values between 0.2 and 0.8 were obtained for severely damaged and collapsed buildings.


Genetic Algorithm for Job Scheduling Problem
Dr. Elmer P. Dadios
Manufacturing Engineering Management Department

Genetic Algorithm Solution to Job Scheduling Problem
This paper presents solution to job shop scheduling problem for n machines and m jobs using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The objective for job scheduling problem is to meet the deadline set for each jobs and to minimize the idle time of the machines. The development of GA architecture using two parent reproduction and single offspring is presented. The effect of GA parameters such as: mutation rate, crossover rate, population size on the performance of the system is investigated. Results show that the GA technique developed is accurate and robust to solve the problem.

Genetic Algorithm Using Three-Parent Crossover for Job Scheduling Problem 
The job scheduling problem is inherently complex and is categorized under the NP class of problems. In the course of finding an optimal solution, an increase in jobs for scheduling, in conjunction with all the scheduling requirements, would tend to yield an exponential rise in processing time. Due to the problem high computational demand, the aim of most system is not to find an optimal solution, but rather to find a relatively good and feasible one. It is vital to consider the time it takes to generate the schedule; an optimal schedule would render itself obsolete if not generated on time. This research proposes novel Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique using three-parent crossover to generate near-optimal schedules for the job scheduling problem. Experimental results show that GA three parent crossover gave better performance compared to the traditional GA two parent crossover approach.


Strength Curve Generation of the Biceps Muscles via Electronically Controlled Mechanism
Mr. Giovanni L. Fabian
Manufacturing Engineering Management Department

The study introduces a new concept in the generation of strength curve profiles in resistance training equipment. Rather than of using the conventional spiral off centered cam commonly used in current resistance training equipments, this study focuses on using a DC motor to be controlled by a micro controller to generate the strength curve as well as the resistance in resistance training equipment. Unlike the spiral off centered cam, the method in this study will not be hampered by the limitations imposed by missing a mechanical component that usually lack flexibility in theses equipments. The concept of this study will be demonstrated in a barbell curl exercise, although the concept can also be applied to other forms of resistance training equipments. With this study, a new and flexible alternative in the generation of strength curve profiles in resistance training equipments can be offered.


Development of a MATLAB-Based Controller for the CRS Robotics A255 Robot Arm
Mr. Arthur Pius P. Santiago
Manufacturing Engineering Management Department

This study focuses on the development of a Windows-based controller for the CRS Robotics A255 Robot Arm. Previously, the controller interface for the robot arm is DOS-based making it difficult to use. The result of this study is a user-friendly controller which utilizes a graphical user interface (GUI) generated by MATLAB with the use of the Robot Toolbox by Peter Corke. Movements modeled on the host computer are then mimicked by the robot arm. In driving the robot arm's motors, an external circuit was built using LM628 motion controller ICs. All data exchange between the host computer and the external circuitry is done through serial communications. Comparison between simulated movement and actual robot movement and behavior were used to gauge the effectiveness of the robot arm controller.


A Combinatorial Optimization Model for Selection of Technological Alternatives on a Life-cycle Basis: Application to Power Generation with Carbon Sequestration
Dr. Raymond Girard R. Tan 
Chemical Engineering Department
Dr. Alvin B. Culaba
Mechanical Engineering Department

Choice of technological alternatives in a life cycle system is modeled as an integer programming problem. The resulting model is an extension of the formalized matrix-based computational LCA described in the work of Heijungs and SUh (2002). A case study on the minimization of greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired generation of electricity with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is used to illustrate the modeling approach. The resulting integer program is solved using swarm intelligence methods to determine the optimal solution.


College of Science

Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Tectona Philippinensis Benth, & Hook .f. Inferred from TRNL Intron Sequences
Dr. Esperanza Maribel G. Agoo
Biology Department

Genetic diversity within and among three populations of Tectona philippinensis Benth & Hook.f. (Philippine teak) is analyzed based on trnL intron sequence variations. Leaf samples were collected from Luzon Mainland (Lobo and San Juan (Batangas) and Iling Island (Occidental Mindoro). DNA extraction, PCR amplification, DNA sequencing, sequence alignment and genetic variation statistical analysis were consequently conducted. The cluster analysis show that the three populations are homogenous with unique sequences expressed in some Iling Island individuals. Phenetic dendrograms also show that the sequences of the Philippine teak are unique from its close generic relatives in the family Labiatae. But as a species, no particular (sub)population, as a whole or collectively, shows affinity to these generic relatives. Sequence polymorphism analysis also show that there is only one population for the species with a tendency to develop two subpopulations, i.e. Iling subpopulation and San Juan-Lobo subpopulation. The lower nucleotide diversity within the San Juan individuals and within Lobo individuals indicate that these mainland (sub)populations are relatively derived compared to the Iling group. In-situ and ex-situ conservation efforts should take into account both the island and mainland (sub)populations.


The Colonizing Plants in the Lahar-Covered Areas: Vegetation Analysis And Protein Profile of Selected Plants
Dr. Josefina B. de Jesus
Biology Department

The present study is made up of two parts: (1) Vegetation analysis and (2) protein profile of selected plants. Vegetation analyses were conducted in two sites in the lahar-covered areas to determine the dominant plant species and the variety of plants present. The two sites were: a disturbed site in Barangay Mancatian, Porac, Pampanga and a less disturbed site in the vicinity of the crater via the Capas, Tarlac route.

A total of 33 species were identified from both sites, majority of which belong to Families Asteraceae and Poaceae. In the lahar area of Barangay Mancatian, there were 14 identified species while there were 24 species in the vicinity of the crater . Results of the vegetation analyses showed that during the first and second years of vegetation analysis in Barangay Mancatian, the dominant species were Saccharum spontaneum, Calopogonium mucunoides, and Rhynchelytrum repens. In the vicinity of the crater, however, Trema orientalis, Imperata cylindrical and S. spontaneum were the dominant species during the first year of vegetation analysis, and in the second year T. orientalis, Mikania cordata and S. spontaneum were the dominant species.

Lahar contained high amounts of aluminum, calcium, magnesium and sodium (> 1000 mg/kg DW) and very low amounts of boron, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, lithium, molybdenum, nickel, lead, sulfur, strontium and zinc (0-100 mg/kg DW). Elements with concentration ranging from 100 - 1000 mg/kg DW include carbon, hydrogen, potassium, manganese, nitrogen and phosphorus. The concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in lahar were considered low relative to agricultural productivity.

Within 2 years of vegetation analysis in Barangay Mancatian, S.spontaneum, R. repens, C. mucunoides, Tephrosia sp., and B. barbata persisted. In the vicinity of the crater, 12 species persisted during the second year of vegetation analysis consisting of P. calomelanos, B. pilosa, C. crepidiodes, Erigeron sp., L. dentate, M. cordata, C. brevifolius, I. cylindrical, P. polystachyum, P. paniceum, S. spontaneum and T. orientalis.

Comparison of protein profiles obtained from leaf tissues at a given condition and at a particular collection time indicates similarities and differences in terms of molecular weight and intensity of expression. Of the many species assayed in the present study, protin expression was more intense at the ~66.2 kDa of C. pubescens and S. saman and the ~100 kDa of R. repens and P. polystachyum.


Priority Reef Areas in the Eastern Seaboard of the Philippines for Marine Protected Area Deployment 
Dr. Wilfredo Roehl Y. Licuanan
Biology Department

Protection of marine biodiversity and sustainable fisheries are inexorably linked in coral reef habitats in the Philippines. This is consequence of the wide variety of species exploited in the country, coupled with the complex interrelations among species and their habitat typical of tropical systems such as coral reefs.

Unfortunately however, the Philippines is considered a biodiversity "hotspot", recognized on the basis of both unusually high biodiversity and high risk to that diversity. Hope springs from the increased numbers of marine protected areas (MPA) that have been set up in the country to arrest the decline of habitat quality and fisheries yields. However, even if scientific information to guide MPA deployment is available, criteria by which potential MPA sites can be selected need to be refined and adapted to local situations. As a step towards this goal, site evaluation and MPA prioritization was conducted for 35 geographical locations in the Philippine Pacific coast. A biodiversity index that incorporates abundance and degree of endemism was combined with a biodiversity risk index based on proximity to human population centers and typhoon impact is introduced here to produce a ranking of the geographic locations. These indices were then applied to data on corals, reef fishes, seagrass, and seaweeds from the 35 geographical locations. The locations that yielded the ideal high biodiversity-low risk values included Northern Samar, Masbate, Eastern Samar, and Davao Oriental. These areas need to be put under protective management. The approach introduced here also highlighted unique features of the other locations, illustrating its utility in allowing for a more objective evaluation of sites for possible MPA deployments.


Molecular Characterization of Extended-Spectrum B-lactamases (ESBL) of Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from Cases of the Philippine General Hospital
Dr. Esperanza Cabrera
Biology Department

Enterobactericeae isolates comprised of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes collected from cases of the Philippine General Hospital from June 2000 to August 2001, and found to be ESBL-producing using the double-disc synergy assay were studies for molecular characterization of the ESBL. Polymerase chain reaction of extracted plasmids showed the presence of SHV-derived ESBL in all of the 32 isolates studied, with 11 also carrying the classical non-ESBL blaTEM gene identified to be that of TEM-1 on sequencing. Nucleotide sequencing identified these ESBL as SHV-12, showing the typical L35Q, G238S and E240K mutations. Isoelectric focusing demonstrated the ESBL protein to have a pl of 8.2 after staining with nitrocefin and inhibition studies with clavulanate, confirming the SHV-12 identity. None of the plasmids from cefoxitin resistant isolates produced amplified products using CMY primers for the AmpC gene, suggesting that this may be carried in the chromosome and not in the plasmids of the isolates.


Synthesis of Tetrathiafulvalene Derivatives with Bromo m-XYLYL and Acetylated Glucose Units: Precursors to Tetrathiafulvalene Macrocycles
Dr. Glenn V. Alea
Chemistry Department

Two tetrathiafulvalene derivatives, tetrathiafulvalene with two bromo m-xylyl substituents (1) and tetrathiafulvalene with two acetylated bromo-glucopyranosyl substituents (2) were synthesized. The synthesis involved the preparation of the cyanoethyl protected tetrathiafulvalene (10) from zinc complex (6) in five steps. Deprotection of (10) using cesium hydroxide and the reaction of the resulting dithiolate with 2.5 equivalent of , ' m-xylyldibromide yielded 8.408% of (1), while the addition of 1-bromo-2, 3, 4-tri-O-acetyl-6-iodoglucopyranoside (13) to deprotected (10) produced (2) in 16.19% yield. The TTF derivatives (1) and (2) may be used as precursors to the synthesis of macrocycles containing phenyl and/or sugar units.

Gaussian Calculations of 13-C NMR Spectra of Isovoucapenol A,B,C, and D
Dr. Martin C. Ilao
Chemistry Department

Ab initio methods were used to calculate the absolute and relative chemical shifts of the carbon atoms in isovouacapenol A-D. The geometry was optimized at the RHF/6-31G(d) level. Then the nmr shielding tensors were calculated with use of the Gauge Including Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method using the density functional theory (DFT), particularly B3LYP/6-31G(d). The chemical shifts relative to tetramethylsilane (TMS) were obtained upon subtraction from the absolute chemical shifts of TMS, which were obtained at the same level of theory. The calculated values at 6-31G(d) level are found to be systematically lower than the experimental values. The H-NMR chemical shifts were also obtained but the coupling constants were not calculated. The results also show that calculated H-NMR shifts are generally lower than the experimental values, except where magnetic anisotropy may have exerted a significant role. Solvent effects have not been included in this analysis.

Size and Monodispersity Variations of Silver and Copper Nanoparticles Synthesized Via Microwave Irradiation
Dr. Nikko P. Quevada
Chemistry Department

Ag nanoparticles were synthesized through solution-phase chemical reduction of AgNO3 via microwave irradiation. Polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) were used as capping agents with water and ethanol as solvents, and sodium citrate, ethylene glycol, and NaBH4. The microwave heating time, microwave heating power, AgNO3 concentration, reducing agent concentration, capping agent concentration, and molar ratio of reducing agent to Ag nitrate, were optimized in cases where Ag nanoparticles were successfully synthesized. The use of PAA and sodium borohydride (NaBH4) with water as solvent led to the synthesis of spherical Ag nanoparticles in the range of about 10-100 nm. The Ag nanoparticles produced were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-VIS spectrophotometry. 

Radiation Force Exerted on Nanometer Size Non-Resonant Kerr Particle by a Tightly Focused Gaussian Beam
Dr. Romeric F. Pobre
Physics Department

We calculate the radiation force that is exerted by a focused continuous-wave Gaussian beam of wavelength l on a non-absorbing nonlinear particle of radius a << 50 l/p. The refractive index of the mechanically-rigid particle is proportional to the incident intensity according to the electro-optic Kerr effect. The force consists of two components representing the contributions of the electromagnetic field gradient and the light scattered by the Kerr particle. The focused intensity distribution is determined using expressions for the six electromagnetic components that are corrected to the fifth order in the numerical aperture (NA) of the focusing objective lens. We found that for particles with a < l/21.28, the trapping force is dominated by the gradient force and the axial trapping force is symmetric about the geometrical focus. The two contributions are comparable with larger particles and the axial trapping force becomes asymmetric with its zero location displaced away from the focus and towards the beam propagation direction. We study the trapping force behavior versus incident beam power, NA, l, and relative refractive index between the surrounding liquid and the particle. We also examine the confinement of a Kerr particle that exhibits Brownian motion in a focused beam. Numerical results show that the Kerr effect increases the trapping force strength and significantly improves the confinement of Brownian particles.