An Exploratory Research on the Implementation of Activity-Based Costing (ABC) Techniques
in Selected Firms in the Philippines
Marivic V. Manalo
Activity-Based Costing (ABC) is a management accounting tool used to guide the strategy formulations of a company. In the Philippines, only a handful of companies have adopted ABC as a tool in their strategy formulations. Most of the companies employ ABC in their pilot implementation.
Relative to other advanced countries like the United States, little is known about the implementation of activity-based costing in the Philippines. This research focused on the implementation of ABC in various companies in the Philippines. The study was limited to how ABC was implemented, what benefits were derived, and what problems were encountered in using the system. The results of the interview conducted revealed that of the companies included in the sample, 59% use ABC as a parallel system to other costing systems, while the remaining 41% use ABC as the main costing system. Most of the companies included in the study implemented ABC on a gradual basis, i.e., piloting first with a department (e.g., production) then weighing the benefits that may be derived from the adoption of the new system versus the cost incurred in the implementation of such changes in the costing technique.
ABC techniques helped companies in determining accurate product or service cost. ABC also identified processes that should be improved and the products or services that contributed the most to the company's profitability. It also helped in pinpointing which factors contributed most to cost, and which assisted management in choosing the best alternative in reducing overall costs incurred by the company. As such, ABC can be the best tool in implementing environmental accounting at the firm level.
However, many companies find it difficult to fully implement ABC because of the demands of the clients, customers, or even suppliers with whom business is transacted. They also complain about employees' resistance to the changes that are required in the adoption of ABC. With these restrictions, companies using ABC could not fully implement it in all their operations.
In the ever-changing globally-competitive world of business, companies need to discover and implement new techniques in order to be more productive, efficient, and profitable. This will enable them to have a competitive advantage over other companies. But like all other innovations, careful analysis must be made before shifting to new methods and techniques. Companies contemplating much-needed change in their costing procedures must make a thorough and careful analysis of both costing systems. The benefits in shifting from one technique to another must be greater than the costs that will be incurred in the long run.
In conclusion, adopting the ABC technique improves the overall operation of a company to a certain extent. As with any new concept, there are bound to be growing pains and a learning curve. Most of the companies included in this research realized that the new system should be given time for acceptance and understanding. Change is not something that people readily accept. Companies are learning that they must be willing to allow their objectives to grow as their understanding of the possibilities brought about by the use of ABC techniques grows, and to make modifications where needed.
Entrepreneurial Characteristics of Women Microentrepreneurs in Paliparan, Dasmariñas, Cavite
Gloria S. Chavez
Business Management Department
Using a descriptive, correlational, and case research design, a survey was conducted among 97 women microentrepreneurs who were partners of the Caucus on Poverty Reduction-Business Skills Development Resource Center (CPR-BSDRC) at Paliparan, Dasmariñas, Cavite. The objective of the study is to find out if there are predominant entrepreneurial characteristics among the women. The statistical tools used for analysis of the data included means and percentages to describe the profile of the women microentrepreneurs and one-way ANOVA to describe the relationships among the variables. The findings revealed that the predominant entrepreneurial characteristic among the women microentrepreneurs is achievement orientation.
Based on the findings, the following recommendations were forwarded:
1) Government agencies involved in poverty alleviation efforts can use the findings of this study as a take-off point in setting-up microfinance projects to enhance the earning capabilities of women in poor communities;
2) The findings of this study can be used by academic institutions involved in entrepreneurial development as an empirically-based discussion of entrepreneurial characteristics;
3) Nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and people's organizations (POs) involved in microfinance or microcredit can replicate this study to find out what entrepreneurial characteristics are dominant in their communities;
4) Further studies can be conducted by those interested in contributing to the field of entrepreneurship and gender studies;
5) CPR-BSDRC can develop a training program to further enhance the achievement orientation of their partners in microfinance projects. Moreover, other training modules could be prepared to develop the risk-taking and innovative capabilities of their partners' entrepreneurial characteristics because these are urgently needed by enterprises as they face the threat of globalization;
6)Government agencies and people's organizations involved in poverty alleviation projects could conduct similar researches involving their projects to provide for the baseline data needed to fight poverty through entrepreneurship.
A World Bank report states that "there has been a slow progress in the poverty reduction efforts in the country due to, among other factors, the lack of participation of poverty stricken groups in the design and implementation of anti-poverty responses." Studies in microenterprises, microfinance, and profiling the poor are most welcome, for only in so doing can solutions be found with the help of those directly involved in the problem.
A Gender-based Analysis of Performance of Small and Medium Printing Firms in Metro Manila
Milagros F. Malaya
Business Management Department
Increasing the participation of women in entrepreneurship is critical to a country's long-term economic growth. This conclusion was drawn from the ground breaking research conducted worldwide by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, 2000). To support women currently in business and encourage more women to start their own businesses, there is a need to expand baseline information about female entrepreneurs. This study, therefore, attempted to answer some of the questions raised about women and their businesses.
The research objectives were to present a comparative analysis of the performance of male-owned and female-owned businesses using a multidimensional framework of entrepreneurial success, and to investigate the extent of influence of selected factors (i.e., management style and strategies) on their success. The success indicators refer to the financial, non-financial, and personal goals indicated in the literature as being important to entrepreneurs.
Data for the study were obtained from member companies of the Printing Industries Association of the Philippines, Inc. (PIAP). The descriptive, relational, and causal designs were employed with the following statistical tools: percentage distributions, summary statistics (mean, median, standard deviation), t-test for mean differences, multiple linear regression modeling, and the ANOVA (analysis of variance) interaction graphs.
The major findings indicated that in the printing services sector:
The findings strongly suggest that certain differences between male and female business owners may be more fundamental in nature, and a feminist perspective is warranted in order to evaluate appropriately the performance of female-owned businesses.
Ang Istruktura at mga Pagbabago sa Yamang-Tao ng Hukbong Paggawa ng mga Industriya ng Pilipinas: Implikasyon sa Produktibidad at Pagkakompetitibo
Tereso S. Tullao, Jr.
Malawak ang papel na ginagampanan ng yamang-tao bilang mahalagang sangkap sa proseso ng produksyon. Ang papel na ito ay naging daan upang siyasatin ang produktibidad ng mga sangkap na maaaring magpaliwanag sa bilis ng paglaking ekonomiko. Maging ang pagiging kompetitibo ng mga bansa ay itinuturo sa pagkakaiba sa antas ng yamang-tao nito. Maraming pag-aaral ang nagpapatunay sa importansyang ginagampanan ng yamang-tao sa pagpapasulong ng isang bansa. Ang problemang konseptwal at empirikal ay kung paano susukatin ang yamang ito. Maraming alternatibong pamamaraan ang ginagamit sa pagsukat nito.
Ang pangunahing problema ng pananaliksik ay tukuyin kung may makabuluhang pagbabago sa istruktura ng yamang-tao sa hukbong paggawa sa iba't ibang industriya sa Pilipinas sa paglipas ng panahon. Ang ikalawang problema ng pananaliksik ay tukuyin kung may epekto ang mga pagbabago ng yamang-tao sa produktibidad ng mga industriya at pagiging kompetitibo ng mga ito.
Ang production function o relasyon ng nabuong produkto at ginagamit na produktibong sangkap ay maaaring ihayag sa sumusunod na ekweysyon:
Q it = f (A it, it L it , K it )
Ang it Q ay ang nabuong produkto ng ika-i na kompanya sa taong t, ang it L ay ang paggawang sangkap ng ika-i na kompanya sa taong t, it K ay ang istak ng kapital ng ika-i kompanya sa taong t, at ang it A ay ang sangkap ng kaalaman o ang pagiging epektibo ng paggawa ng ika-i na kompanya sa taong t. Ipinagpapalagay ng modelo ng produksyon na ang mga kundisyong positibo ang karagdagang produktibibad ng mga sangkap ( ) 0 f ´ > L , at negatibo naman ang bilis ng pagbabago ng karagdagang produktibidad ng mga sangkap, ( ) 0 f '' < L ay nangyayari.
Ang production function ayon sa modelo ni Solow ay maaari ding gamitin sa ating pagsusuri. Tulad ng isang production function ayon sa Cobb-Douglas na modelo, ang relasyon ng nabuong produkto at mga produktibong sangkap ay ipinakikita sa ekweysyon (1)
Q it = f (A it, it L it , K it )
Ang mga depinisyon ng mga varyabol sa ekweysyon (1) ay katulad din ng mga nabanggit sa unahan maliban sa varyabol na Ait. Ang Ait ay ang kabuuang istak ng yamang-tao ng ika-i na kompanya sa taong t. Kung hahatiin ang mga varyabol sa ekweysyon (1) ng varyabol Lit, ang production function ay nauuwi sa pagpapaliwanag kung papaano nagbabago ang produktibidad ng paggawa. Ang production function ayon kay Solow ay ipinakikita sa ekweysyon (2):
qit = f (ait, kit)
Ang qit ay ang nabuong produkto ng bawat paggawa ng ika-i na kompanya sa taong t. Ito rin ay matatawag natin bilang produktibidad ng paggawa ng ika-i na kompanya sa taong t. Ang ait ay ang indeks ng yamang-tao ng ika-i na industriya sa taong t. Ito ay sinusukat bilang avereyds na taong tinapos na pag-aaral ng isang ordinaryong manggagawa sa bawat kompanya. Ang kit ay ang ratio ng kapital sa paggawa o ang istak ng kapital sa bawat paggawa sa ika-i na kompanya sa taong t. Ipinagpapalagay din ng modelo na ang f' (…) >0 at ang f''(…) <0 ay nasusunod. Ang modelong nabanggit ay maaaring sukatin sa pamamagitan ng ekweysyon (3):
ln qit = 0 + 1 it a ln + 2 it k ln + it v
ln qit = ang natural logarithm ng nabuong produkto bawat manggagawa; ln ait = ang natural logarithm ng indeks ng yamang-tao sa ika-i industriya sa taong t; ln kit = ang natural logarithm ng ratio ng capital sa paggawa ng ika-i na industriya sa taong t; vit = mga ingay 2 1 0 ; = mga koepisyenteng susukatin. Ang mga datos ay hango sa ulat ng ika-apat na kwarter ng Labor Force Survey ng National Statistics Office (NSO) mula noong 1988 hanggang 1998. Kinuha mula sa mga taunang survey na ito ang antas ng edukasyon at iba pang katangian (edad at kasarian) ng mga manggagawa sa iba't ibang pangunahing industriya sa buong bansa at iba't ibang rehiyon ayon sa survey noong 1988 at 1998.
Sa pagtatantiya ng ekweysyon ng produktibidad ng mga industriya, kakailanganin ang datos sa produksyon o awtput, istak ng kapital, at paggawa. Ang produksyon ng mga pangunahing industriya sa bansa ay ibinatay sa idinagdag na halaga (value added) mula sa mga ulat ng NSO. Ito ay sinukat ayon sa presyo noong 1985 upang makuha ang tunay na pagbabago sa paglipas ng panahon. Ang ginamit ay ang GDP deflator na nakabatay sa 1985.
Ang halaga ng istak ng kapital ay batay sa pangangapital ng mga industriya simula pa noong 1975 hanggang sa kasalukuyan mula sa Annual Survey of Establishments. Ang datos ay sinukat sa presyo noong 1985 upang makuha ang tunay na pagbabago sa istak ng kapital sa paglipas ng panahon. Ang ginamit na deflator ay ang GDP deflator para sa pangangapital.
Sa paglalarawan ng istruktura ng antas ng edukasyon ng hukbong paggawa, nakita natin ang antas ng natapos na pag-aaral ng mga manggagawa ayon sa edad, kasarian, at uri ng industriya.
Masasabi nating bata pa rin ang edad ng mga miyembro ng hukbong paggawa. Ang pinakamalaking bahagi ng hukbong paggawa ay nasa edad 25 - 34 taon, kahit bumaba na ang proporsyong ito sa paglipas ng mga taon. Samantala, ang pinakamababang bahagi ay nasa kategoryang 55 - 64 ang edad. Ang malaking bahagi rin ng mga manggagawang may mabababang antas ng edukasyon ay matatagpuan sa mga kategorya ng pinakabata at pinakamatandang miyembro ng hukbong paggawa. Karamihan sa mga manggagawang tapos sa kolehiyo ay nasa edad 25 - 34. Samantala, ang pinakamalaking bahagi ng mga manggagawang walang natapos na pag-aaral ay nasa edad 55 - 64 taon.
Nagbabago rin ang indeks ng yamang-tao batay sa edad. Ang edad 20 - 24 taon ay nagtala ng pinakamataas na indeks na umabot sa 9.25 taon at ang edad 55 - 64 ang nagtala naman ng pinakamababang indeks na 6.2 taon noong 1998. Kahit marami ang absolutong bilang ng mga lalaki kung ihahambing sa mga babaeng miyembro ng hukbong paggawa, tumataas naman ang absolutong bilang at proporsyon ng kababaihang pumapasok sa hukbong paggawa sa paglipas ng mga taon. Mas maraming kababaihan ang tapos sa kolehiyo kung ihahambing sa bilang ng kalalakihan. Bunga nito, higit na mataas ang antas ng indeks ng yamang-tao ng mga kababaihan kung ihahambing sa mga kalalakihan.
Kung titingnan ang istruktura ng antas ng edukasyon ng mga manggagawa ayon sa industriya, lumalabas na nagkakaiba ang mga ito sa pagitan ng mga produktibong sektor ng ekonomiya.
Malaking bahagi ng mga manggagawa sa agrikultura ay hindi tapos sa elementarya. Samantala, ang pinakamalaking bahagi ng mga manggagawa sa sektor industriyal ay tapos sa hayskul tulad ng pagmamanufaktura at tapos naman sa kolehiyo sa elektrisidad, gas, at tubig. Sa sektor ng mga serbisyo, ang pinakamalaking proporsyon ng mga manggagawa ay tapos sa hayskul, na lumilitaw sa mga industriya ng kalakalan at transportasyon; samantalang tapos naman sa kolehiyo ang lumalabas sa mga industriya ng pananalapi at serbisyong pangkomunidad.
Ang indeks ng yamang-tao sa mga industriya ay naitala noong 1998 sa antas na 8.2 taon o lagpas lamang ng ikalawang taon sa hayskul. Ito ay tumaas lamang ng 8.4 porsiyento sa loob ng labing-isang taon. Ang agrikultura ang nagtala ng pinakamababang indeks na umabot lamang 6.06 taon o tapos ng elementarya noong 1998 kahit tumaas na ito mula sa naitala noong 1988. Samantala, ang industriya ng pananalapi ang nagtala ng pinakamataas na indeks na umabot sa 11.96 taon noong 1998, ngunit bumaba na ito mula sa naitalang indeks noong 1988. Hindi iisang direksyon ang dinaanan ng indeks ng yamang-tao ng mga industriya. Kasama sa mga industriyang nagtala ng pagtaas sa indeks sa loob ng labing-isang taon ay pagmamanufactura, pagmimina, konstruksyon, kalakalan at transportasyon, samantalang bumaba naman ang indeks sa elektrisidad, gas, at tubig.
Batay sa espesipikasyon ng production function ayon sa modelong Solow, lumilitaw na mahalaga ang papel ng edukasyon sa pagpapataas ng produktibidad ng mga industriya. Ang nasukat na koepisyente ng elastisidad ng produktibidad ng paggawa sa indeks ng yamang-tao ay napakataas at lumalagpas sa 100%. Subalit dahil sa napakabagal na pagtaas ng indeks ng yamang-tao sa iba't ibang industriya sa loob ng mahigit sa isang dekada, ang napakataas na potensyal na epekto ng edukasyon sa pagpapataas ng produktibidad ng mga industriya ay hindi maipatupad.
Makabuluhan din ang epekto ng pangangapital sa pagpapataas ng produktibidad ng mga industriya. Ayon sa nasukat na koepisyente, kahit na maaaring maghalinhinan ang kapital at paggawa sa pagbabago ng produktibidad ng mga kompanya, kinakailangang mas mabilis ang pagtaas ng pagbabago sa kapital kaysa pagbabago sa paggawa upang makuha ang makabuluhang pagbabago sa produktibidad ng paggawa sa mga industriya. Nagpapahiwatig na kailangang-kailangan ang dagdag na pangangapital sa mga industriya upang mapataas ang produktibidad.
Ang resulta ng ating pagsusuri ay sumasang-ayon sa mga pag-aaral empirikal sa ibang bansa na naghahayag na kinakailangan ang mas matinding pagpapalawak ng yamang-tao kaysa sa pagpapalawak ng istak ng kapital at paggawa upang mapabilis ang pag-unlad ng ekonomiya.
Sa harap ng globalisasyon at pagbubukas ng ating ekonomiya sa malayang kalakalang internasyonal, ang pagiging kompetitibo ng ating mga industriya ay nakasalalay sa mataas na antas ng edukasyon ng ating mga manggagawa. Tunay na nagpapataas ng produktibidad ang sangkap na ito sa proseso ng produksyon. Dahil dito, kakailanganin ang mabilis na pangangapital sa yamang-tao upang tumaas at tumingkad ang pagiging kompetitibo ng ating mga industriya nang malasap natin ang mga benepisyo ng globalisasyon.
An Analysis of the Philippines' Interregional Market Integration for Rice
Cesar C. Rufino
This study examines the existence of the spatial market integration of the different pairs of regional rice markets in the Philippines. By employing modern time-series econometric techniques, the research uncovers compelling pieces of evidence of strong steady-state linkages among the various pair-wise combinations of regional rice markets, with only an insignificant segregated route. The main conclusion drawn from various inference procedures undertaken in the study is that despite the geographic segregation of regional rice markets and the fragmented and often inefficient rice distribution system, price signals and other market information are being transmitted efficiently across markets, thus negating the potential occurrence of unexploited arbitrage opportunities.
Family Business Management Learning with Technology
Ma. Andrea L. Santiago
Business Management Department
The purpose of the research was to develop course materials for Family Business Management (FABUMAN), a newly-introduced major subject in the Business Management Curriculum. More than a materials development project, however, the research focused on the aspect of innovative teaching, ensuring that the course could be taught online using the IVLE system.
At the time of its inception, there was no available textbook for Family Business Management. Most of the basic theories in the subject matter were found in several books dated 1995 and earlier. The newer books being released were topic specific. Consequently the search output was meant to present a logical and relevant approach to teaching family business management to business management students.
The output of this research is a print as well as soft copy of the course module. There are also Powerpoint presentations for each topic. The course materials present instructions on how to use the IVLE to teach the course, or the e-group, if the prospective professor has not taken the IVLE course yet. Suggested discussion questions as well as online course projects are likewise presented.
Essentially the framework used is to teach the students the basics of family dynamics. Only after there is good appreciation of the peculiarities of family relationships are the students introduced to the common issues that confront families in business-such as role and system overlaps, professionalization, compensation, governance, succession, and wealth management. They are then equipped to analyze case materials because they can distinguish the problems that emanate from family dynamics.
The Content and Form of Reader-generated Questions: Implications for Independent Reading/Learning and for Teaching
Remedios Z. Miciano
Department of English and Applied Linguistics
Two classes in Developmental Reading were trained in question-formulation and were then required to ask any number and type of questions based on four texts. Three inter-raters coded the questions for their content and form. The results of the study showed the dominance of recognition or retrieval questions, suggesting the students' proficiency in reading for details and, conversely, a deficiency in critical reading. In terms of form, although 57% of the questions were coherent and grammatical, this fact alone may not indicate a high English Language proficiency. There were also many instances of direct copying of phrases from the original text, pointing to the students' lack of confidence or ability in summarizing and paraphrasing.
Cognitive Processes Reflected in DLSU Student Essays
Paz N. Canilao
Department of English and Applied Linguistics
Since the eighties, the teaching of writing has taken on new dimensions. Approaches in the teaching of writing used to emphasize the development of writing abilities through the application of the rules of grammar and the use of proper mechanics and of appropriate structures. Writing was then generally seen as a matter of fleshing out formulaic plans; a student wrote well if s/he filled in a frame with the necessary ideas/information. Current views on writing, however, stress the interconnectedness of writing and thinking. Many writing experts agree that writing can foster many different types of learning, especially writing that requires higher cognitive skills. The belief is that to improve the quality of writing of the students, there is a need to improve the quality of their thinking.
This study aimed to identify the types of cognitive processes that first and third year DLSU college students used in a writing task. Specifically, the study explored:
a.) the types of cognition that the students used at the sentence, paragraph, and discourse levels;
b.) the similarities/differences in the use of the cognitive types by the first and third year students;
c.) the dominant patterns of cognition in each year level; and
d.) the implications of the findings for the teaching of composition in the classroom
Linguistic cues were used as the basis for identifying the specific types of cognition students used in a writing task: focus, contracts, change, sequence (time), sequence (logic), classification, change, and addition.
The findings indicate that the academic year level had very little influence on the cognitive types that the first and third year students used in their essay. Results also indicate that the cognitive processes students used in the text tended to be more on the sentimental level (i.e. local), rather than on the discourse level (i.e. global). A major recommendation made in the study is the exploration of how writing can be better utilized to better enhance the cognitive processes of the students.
Evidentiality in Philippine English and Filipino Newspaper Editorials
Danilo T. Dayag
Department of English and Applied Linguistics
The study aimed to describe the use of evidentials in Philippine English and Filipino newspaper editorials. In particular, it attempted to answer the following questions: (1) What are the sources of information or data (evidentials) found in Philippine English and Filipino newspaper editorials? How are these sources classified? (2) How do Philippine English and Filipino editorials compare in terms of presenting evidence in newspaper editorials? and (3) How are evidentials in the editorials arranged vis-à-vis the discourse structure of the texts?
Data were taken from one month's issues (September 21-October 19, 2002) of each of the three leading English-medium newspapers and of the three major morning tabloids circulated in the Philippines, or a total of 180 editorials (90 Philippine English and 90 Filipino editorials). The Philippine English editorials came from the following broadsheets: Philippine Daily Inquirer (PDI), Philippine Star (PS), and The Manila Times (TMT). Data for Filipino were taken from the following morning tabloids: Abante (Ab), Kabayan (Kab), and Ang Pilipino Star Ngayon (APSN).
First, it appears that in terms of the use of evidentials in Philippine newspapers, Philippine English and Filipino newspaper editorials have more similarities to one another than differences. They are similar in the aspect more frequent use of non-visual type of direct evidence than the visual type. For indirect evidentials, there is a widespread use of inferentials in newspaper editorials in both languages, compared to presumptives, perhaps in keeping with the interpretative and evaluative nature of editorials. Second, a difference is noted in the use of mediated evidence (quotatives) in the newspaper editorials in question. Third, there is no predictable pattern in terms of the discourse position of evidentials in the Philippine newspaper editorials.
Exploring the Role of Self-Regulatory Prompts in Enhancing Metacognitive Knowledge of Freshman Composition Students
Sterling M. Plata
Department of English and Applied Linguistics
This study focused on Freshman Composition students' retrospection in their journals to ascertain the role of a three-stage model of self-regulatory prompts in enhancing metacognitive knowledge. A total of forty-seven journals were collected from two intact classes composed of twenty-two liberal arts and twenty-five engineering students. Qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to obtain a detailed description of the participants' metacognition. The findings suggest that giving students prompts that reflect a self-regulated cycle can increase their understanding of themselves as learners as well as their understanding of internal and external factors that spell their success or failure in class. Moreover, the results indicate that the prompts not only give students the experience of minding their own thinking, but also make them aware of the depth and breadth of their learning experience.
Supervision of Instruction: The Philippine Perspective
Adelaida L. Bago
Educational Leadership & Management Department
Supervision is a dynamic process that involves many dimensions. It is this dynamism and multi-dimensionality that make it not only desirable, but more importantly, an imperative in education, which is an open dynamic system. Open dynamic systems are very vulnerable to changes in the environment. Thus, they need to be continuously revitalized in order to ensure their growth and progress as well as relevance in a changing world. Supervision can facilitate this continuous renewal that can in turn cause the transformation and evolution of educational systems that will further validate their importance to society. The book attempted to capture this dynamism as it explores the multi-fold dimensions of supervision that enables education to respond to the changing times.
Adequate and enlightened supervision provides the indispensable link between good teaching and student learning. It offers the necessary assistance for the teacher to grow and develop in the profession as well as gain self-confidence in their teaching, which can ultimately cause students to learn optimally-the raison d'etre of education.
Research on effective schools has unequivocally pointed to strong instructional enlightened leadership as the number one indicator, and perhaps the most crucial one, of effectiveness. A strong and visionary instructional leader will make sure that all the other correlates of effectiveness such as clear vision, safe environment, constant evaluation, healthy home-school relationship, and attention to time-on-task, among others, are all in place.
This is the main thesis of the book: school effectiveness is a function of a strong and enlightened instructional leadership, a crucial all-encompassing dimension of supervision. But instructional leadership requires knowledge and skills that can be learned and developed as well as traits of a leader that can also be fine tuned. More importantly, enlightened leadership demands appropriate and creative responses to the changing needs (emotional, intellectual, physical, spiritual, etc.) of the academic community in order for the latter to perform their tasks in accordance with the mission of the school and the expectations of the community it serves.
The book is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter focuses on the changing concept of supervision and its impact on the leadership behavior of the supervisors. Chapter Two discusses the conceptual framework of supervision, which involves the different dimensions of the process, which may be classified under off-class or in-class categories. The four succeeding chapters deal with these different in-class or off-class dimensions of supervision: supervision of instruction, evaluation, staff development, and organizational structure. The sixth chapter focuses on legal concerns in supervision, which often constrain effective supervision due to the leader's lack of knowledge. The last chapter is on the organizational structure of supervision for both the public and the private sectors in the Philippines.
Whenever applicable, the discussion of the various dimensions of supervision in the different chapters are made concrete with data based on practices in the Philippines.
An Evaluation of the DLSU Adapted Physical Education Program Using the A-B-C-D Model
Dafrosa Y. Zagala
Virgilia T. Calabio
Physical Education Department
The research was conducted to evaluate the status of the DLSU Adapted Physical Education Program. Using the A-B-C-D Model of evaluation as conceived by Dr. Jesus A. Ochave of PNU, the research was undertaken to determine the discrepancy between the intents and actualities of the DLSU Adapted Physical Education Program.
Specifically, the components examined were the intended and actual students, the intended and actual goals and objectives, the intended and actual program of activities, facilities, supplies and equipment. It examined the consistency and difference of the components of the DLSU Adapted Physical Education Program.
A sample size of students was taken along with the Chair of the Physical Education Department and Adapted Physical Education Instructor/Professor. Data collection instruments included:
1.Rating scale, in the form of questionnaires for Physical Education Instructor/Professor, Physical Education Chair, and students;
3.Formal and informal observation;
4.Ocular survey to inspect the condition of the facilities.
The Difference Between the Performance of DLSU PE Students (SY2001-2002) in a 1000M/Walk-Run and 400M/Water Walk-Run
Elizabeth D. Mascardo
Physical Education Department
Movement is an essential factor in one's life. However, movement often causes injuries, especially if the individual does not live an active lifestyle (i.e., engaging in sports). This leads to a decreased functional capacity.
In order to address one's sedentary lifestyle, exercise programs are designed. Running, for example, is the most natural and common way of exercise to improve a person's fitness and improve his/her performance and functional capabilities. Because of this principle, the De La Salle University-Manila PE Department requires PE students to carry out a 1000-M walk-run and to fulfill the battery test for the cardio-respiratory endurance fitness test. However, because some persons cannot tolerate running due to certain injuries, an alternative exercise program called water running or a 400-M/water walk-run has been developed.
This study presented a quantitative research on the differences in the performance of DLSU PE students (SY 2001-2002) in a 1000-M/walk-run and 400-M/water walk-run. Different measures were considered, such as heart rates of the participant while resting, training heart rates, recovery heart rate, time of completion, gender, and age.
Data were collected from eighty participants who underwent both the 1000-M/walk-run and 400-M/ water walk-run during the first and second week, respectively, of their PE classes. Results showed that there are significant differences between the 1000-M/walk-run and 400-M/water walk-run based on recovery heart rate, training heart rate, and time of completion. The 400-M/water walk-run follows the same range of motion as running on land, but the presence of water eliminates the impact during land-based running, thus helping lower the heart rate. The results, based on the time of completion, show that water running is significantly different from running on land. An individual running on land for twelve minutes can cover approximately double the distance hurdled by another who is running in water for the same period of time. However, there were no significant differences between the two exercises based on the age and gender of the students.
The findings imply that because water running is a non-impact activity, it can be an alternative exercise program for students who are recovering from impact-related injuries. Water can also serve as venue for measuring cardio-respiratory endurance.
Concerns, Issues, and Coping Strategies of DLSU Students: Implications for Counseling Programs
Carmelita P. Pabiton
Counseling and Educational Psychology Department
This research explored the different concerns, issues, and coping strategies of students in De La Salle University-Manila. The 735 first to fourth year students across six colleges were asked to list as many concerns and issues as they experienced within the last twelve months and how they dealt with these concerns and issues. The results of this study indicate that the respondents' common concerns and issues were along academic, personal-social, personal-health, family, career, financial, and cultural-environmental domains. In terms of strategies used to cope with these concerns, majority of the respondents noted that they sought help/advice from their significant others, did something positive to address their concerns, tried thinking positively, and some did nothing about their problems. Implications for counseling programs for university students are also discussed.
Activity of Metal Oxide Supported on Activated Carbon During Adsorption-Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compound
Susan M. Gallardo
Chemical Engineering Department
In this report, the adsorption-oxidation activities of the prepared catalysts and their surface characteristics were investigated. The catalysts prepared by incipient wetness method consist of cerium oxide supported on activated carbon. 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 weight percent CeO2/AC were prepared. Xylene was chosen as a representative volatile organic compound. The optimum loading of cerium oxide in the adsorption-oxidation of xylene was obtained in the study.
The activity tests were done using a flow reactor system equipped with a gas chromatography apparatus. The percent conversion of xylene, the selectivity to carbon dioxide over carbon monoxide and the yield of carbon were used to measure the catalysts' activity. Surface characterization of the catalysts consisted of Scanning Electron Microscopy, electron Diffraction X-ray, surface area, and pore size measurements.
EDX analysis shows that impregnation of the ceria on the activated carbon at various loading was successful. Also, impurities like Si, Cu, S and K are present in the activated carbon. Surface characterization of the catalysts shows that in increasing ceria loading, surface area decreases. This trend is also true for the pore volume. The pore diameter, as expected, remains essentially the same.
Results of activities tests show that optimum loading of CeO2 is 10% on activated carbon. At low temperature range of 500C to 1000C, xylene is adsorbed with xylene conversion of 35% while at higher temperatures of 1000C to 2500C, xylene is oxidized by the ceria with xylene reduction of 35%. Selectivity to CO2 over CO is 100% while CO2 yield at 2000C is 5 moles CO2 per mole of xylene feed and at 2500C is 6 moles CO2 per mole of xylene feed.
Results of the study are significant to the further improvement of activated carbon used as adsorbent and support material. At the same time, addition of other oxidation catalysts may be used together with the optimum ceria loading.
Understanding 2D Structural Analysis: Learning Modules in the Modeling and Analysis of Framed Structures Using GRASP
Andres Winston C. Oreta
Civil Engineering Department
An exploratory type of instructional and learning material consisting of ten modules about modeling and analysis of framed structures in 2D is presented. Each module focuses on a specific issue on structural modeling and analysis which is discussed with the aid of graphical and tabular results obtained from the 2D structural analysis software, GRASP. The set of learning modules is not a substitute for a textbook on structural analysis; the student must refer to the textbooks for definitions, equations, and techniques.
Each chapter begins with background information and a case study. The student explores the issues raised in the case study through the activities ("Things to Do") or by simply observing and analyzing the "Observation" and graphical and tabular results presented in the module. Included in the modules are exercises ("Things to Try") and comments on the analysis and design of structures ("Things to Ponder").
Using the set of learning modules, the student, with the aid of structural analysis software like GRASP, discovers important insights on the response and behavior of structures due to variations in the parameters of the model configurations of the structures, changes in member and material properties, and changes in the restraint and loading conditions. Through the graphical results, the student can visualize the phenomena, which thus accelerates his/her understanding of concepts through the experience of seeing and interpreting solutions to various structural modeling and analysis problems. The implication and relevance of the case study to the safe and reliable design of structures are also discussed. Each chapter ends with a set of references and reading materials related to the issue presented in the module. Since GRASP provides direct feedback graphically and numerically, students can explore and have fun by simple modification of the configuration of the structural model or loading condition and expand their knowledge and understanding of modeling, analysis, and design of framed structures.
Coal Combustion Waste from Pagbilao Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant as Partial/Full Replacement of Fine Aggregates in Concrete Mixes
Ronaldo S. Gallardo
Joseph S. Remigio
Civil Engineering Department
The cost of basic construction materials such as cement, ordinary sand, and gravel has steadily risen over the years. In time, the production of these materials will slow down as their sources are gradually depleted. Thus, industrialized countries have studied and introduced industrial waste as an alternative material. Tapping this undesirable and unused industrial waste can solve some of the country's environmental and solid waste disposal problems.
This research explored the use of bottom ash, an available by-product from any coal-fired power plant, as a fine aggregate substitute in the mix design of concrete. The bottom ash used specifically for this study came from the Pagbilao Power Station in Quezon Province.
The ash was subjected to several tests to determine its composition and properties. Afterwards, the ash was used in several mix designs to determine the best design mix that could reach the targeted comprehensive strength of 20.7 MPa and the corresponding tensile stress capacity. The manner of substitution of the sand by the ash was made from 0% to 100% ash, in intervals of 20%. Furthermore, these trends were integrated into four different water-cement ratios: 0.69, 0.61, 0.54, and 0.47.
Assessment of Air Quality in Air-conditioned Buildings and Urban Buses
Manuel C. Belino
Mechanical Engineering Department
A.Assessment of Chemical Contaminants and Particulate Matter and Improvement of Air Quality in Air-Conditioned Urban Buses
This study assessed the quality of air in air-conditioned urban buses, and recommended interventions to improve it. Specifically, the study assessed the concentration of air contaminants in air-conditioned urban buses. The air contaminants assessed included both particulate matter (dust and carbon soot) and gases such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxides (SO2), and nitrogen dioxides (NO2).
Based on Canadian indoor air quality standards, the analyses of the concentration of chemical contaminants found inside the buses yielded the following results:
B.Assessment of Indoor Air Quality of De La Salle University-Manila Library Building
The possibility of a higher concentration of air contaminants in air-conditioned buildings than in the outside environment is not remote. These contaminants pose health problems such as respiratory ailments (colds, cough, pneumonitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis, eye irritation and skin allergies) to the building occupants. Air-conditioned buildings, therefore, should not only provide a comfortable environment but also a healthy environment. Providing such an environment requires assessment and improvement of air quality.
This research investigated the air quality of De La Salle University (DLSU) - Manila library building. The probe included an assessment of chemical contaminants and particulate matter, and a survey of indoor air quality (IAQ) health-related problems of the building occupants. Recommendations on how to improve the quality of air in such a building were also presented.
Comparing the concentration of contaminants found in the library building yielded the following results:
Based on these findings, the following conclusions are drawn for both buses and buildings:
An Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of a Locally-Designed and Fabricated Automated Windmill for Power Generation
Alvin B. Culaba
Edwin J. Calilung
Mechanical Engineering Department
This study presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of a wind energy project developed at the Sustainable Technology Laboratory of De La Salle University-Manila. The current system is designed to improve the stability and reliability of conventional bladed designs. It incorporates an automated control mechanism to maximize wind energy conversion and a hydraulic mechanism that facilitates control of structure stability during bad weather conditions. This translates into an actual power output of 2.5kW based on overall turbine efficiency of 45%.
The evaluation of the environmental impacts was done on the system life cycle covering production, operation and maintenance, and disposal. An Excel program was developed to determine the effect of the design parameters, materials use, fabrication processes, operational changes, and parts replacement to the overall environmental impact. Disposal of the system was also considered but eventually found to be negligible because most of the system components used are recyclable. Environmental outputs considered were categorized according to their contribution to resource depletion, greenhouse effect depletion, toxicity, photochemical oxidation, acidification, nitrification, and energy consumption. Results showed high impact values in the areas of greenhouse effect and toxicity due to the wide use of metal parts and significant oil usage for lubrication. Two scenarios were developed to demonstrate that changes in materials used in fabricating the system could have a significant impact on the environment.
Computer-Aided Design of a Low Head Axial-Flow Pump
Alvin Y. Chua
Mechanical Engineering Department
When high-volume and low-head pumps are required, Axial pumps have many applications, such as in irrigation, prawn farming, etc. Without knowledge of the design and construction of axial pumps, end-users make do with off-the-shelf centrifugal pumps that consume a lot of power when applied to low head and high-volume applications. The design of an axial pump is still theoretically not understood in the pump manufacturing industry. The available references do not provide a simple and straightforward design procedure of axial pumps. Thus, the objective of this study is to clarify the theoretical formula and provide a relatively simple and new procedure of designing welded axial-flow pumps.
Since the manual computation of formulas and the use of tables and charts in the design of pumps are time-consuming, the study presents an axial pump design software that computes for the necessary specifications of a pump for a given design criteria. This leads to the fast design process, and even enables non-pump experts to design an axial pump. The software takes into account the practical aspects of fabricating the axial pump. With the theoretical values computed, the nearest standard available parts are suggested. Standard pipe sizes are used in fabricating the axial pump hub and the casing, resulting in material cost savings and reduced fabrication time. Moreover, the spacings between the diameters of the impeller jig fabrication are created at an interval of 25 mm (approximately one inch) to ease the technician's work in the fabrication process.
With the development of the new axial pump design procedure and software, the values generated from the software can be compared against experimental axial pump characteristic graphs. The comparison of computer results with actual values validates the effectiveness of the design procedure.
Laboratory Investigation on the Effects of Different Design Parameters in the Performance of an Axial Flow Pump Used as Turbine
Godofredo C. Salazar
Mechanical Engineering Department
With the current program of the Philippine government to electrify all the barangays in the Philippines by 2006, development of micro-hydro potential is necessary to help attain the objective. Since low-head, high-volume potential sites are more abundant than the high-head lower volume sites, research on axial flow pump technology is vital to the rapid development of micro-hydropower potential in the Philippines.
A hydraulic laboratory test set-up was designed and fabricated and was installed beside the STRC building of De La Salle University-Manila. The set-up was retro-fitted with instrumentation such as torque meter and speed sensor to measure the power, and pressure sensors to measure the flow rates and heads. Gathered data was recorded in a Kyowa data logger connected to a personal computer. Sixteen impellers of different design parameters such as discharge vane angle, hub ratio, number of impeller vanes, and 1/t ratio or vane solidity were fabricated. Each impeller was subjected to two flow rates at different heads, and the brake power and efficiency were calculated. The point of maximum efficiency was determined in each run and the specific speeds in the turbine mode at the maximum efficiency were calculated.
Based on the results of the experiments, a maximum efficiency of 64.0% is attained using the combination of 0.45 hub ratio, 4-vane impeller, l/t ratio of 0.9, and 22.5o discharge vane angle. Similarly, a maximum efficiency of 60.6% is attained with the three-vane impeller, 0.35 hub ratio, 22.5o discharge vane angle and 1.1 l/t ratio. It can therefore be concluded that the optimum discharge vane turbine mode is 22.5. The results of the study show that the effect of the different design parameters in the performance of an axial flow pump in the pump mode is similar to the turbine mode.
Another set of tests with a full scale AFPAT prototype in the actual field condition will be undertaken. A 380 mm diameter prototype is now being installed in Bgy. Mataragan, Malibcong, Abra and a performance test using three and four-vane impellers at different l/t ratios will be conducted. A simple computer program or a nomogram to determine the correct impeller configurations for a given flow rate and head will then be developed to help prospective AFPAT manufacturers.
Genetic Algorithm Application to Constrained Optimization Problem
Elmer P. Dadios
Manufacturing Engineering and Management Department
This paper presents a new approach of genetic algorithm (GA) to solve the constrained optimization problem. In a constrained optimization problem, feasible and infeasible regions occupy the search space. The infeasible regions consist of the solutions that violate the constraint. Oftentimes, classical genetic operators generate infeasible regions of invalid chromosomes. This situation becomes worse when only infeasible chromosomes occupy the whole population.
To address this problem, dynamic and adaptive penalty functions are proposed for the GA search process. This is a novel strategy because it attempts to transform the constrained problem into an unconstrained one by penalizing the GA fitness functions dynamically and adaptively. New equations describing these functions are presented and tested. The effects of the proposed functions developed are investigated and tested using different GA parameters such as mutation and crossover. Comparisons of the performance of the proposed adaptive and dynamic penalty functions against traditional static penalty functions are presented. Results of the experiments show that the proposed functions developed are more accurate, efficient, robust, and easy to implement.
The Study of the Implementation of Teams in Semiconductor and Electronics Companies of the Philippines
Eppie E. Clark
Industrial Civil Engineering Department
The study intended to determine the effect of interpersonal relations and values of the workforce on the effective implementation of teams in the semiconductor and electronic companies. The effects of these could be noted from the performance indicators during the problematic times of the teams.
The straightforward effect of a change in the efficiency can be affected by inputs as adherence to STS principles and promoting supportive values of the workforce. Any positive effect on productivity (documented in records available) as related to these configurations by the respondents' recall of past experiences in the field was utilized to the utmost for the analysis of the findings of the study.
Alternative Sludge Management in Recycled Paper Mills in the Philippines: Focus on Composting
Susan M. Gallardo
Civil Engineering Department
As part of ARRPET-DLSU minor issue objectives, an assessment of the sludge disposal practices of recycled paper mills in the country was conducted. A survey form was designed and distributed to thirty-four recycling paper mills. The survey included questions pertaining to the following: company information, plant operation and production, sludge treatment, disposal, and reuse/recycle method.
Eleven forms were retrieved by mail, fax, and email. However, the remaining twenty-three companies either had ceased operation or did not want to participate in the survey. The survey showed that the predominant practice of sludge disposal is land filling. Some are doing composting, land spreading, soil conditioning, and burning.
One recycled paper mill, an ARRPET-DLSU industry research partner, has started to recycle their sludge as cement bonded board and hollow blocks. Currently, the company is doing joint research with ARRPET-DLSU to apply their sludge as a raw material for composting.
Estimation of the Natural Period at Ambient Conditions of Moment-Resisting Frame (MRF) Buildings Using Neural Networks
Andres Winston C. Oreta
Civil Engineering Department
The natural period of vibration is an important dynamic property of a building because it characterizes the behavior and performance of the structure to external forces. An estimate of the fundamental period of a building is useful to a structural engineer, civil engineer, or urban disaster manager. This study illustrates the use of neural networks in estimating the period of reinforced-concrete (RC) buildings. Data from ambient vibration measurements conducted on medium- and high-rise buildings in Metro Manila were used to train a neural network. A model for estimating the period of RC moment resisting space-frame buildings and RC dual buildings that use global building parameters (i.e., the type of structural system and the height of the building) was developed and its performance was evaluated and compared with existing empirical formulas.
Ethnic Transformation of a Bajau Community in Batangas City (Phase I)
Marlon D.L. Era
Behavioral Sciences Department
The research is baseline study of a Bajau community in Barangay Malitam, Batangas City. The study provides basic socio-demographic information of 104 Bajau families from Mindanao who have been in Malitam for more than ten years. The study shows that many of the cultural practices of Bajaus in Batangas have remained traditional. This is particularly true in the area of courtship, family, marriage, child rearing, religion, and settlement pattern. However, changes have been observed in some of their cultural practices, specifically in the area of education and the means of livelihood. The research utilized key informant interviews and observation. The key informants included selected Bajau leaders, a missionary pastor, a teacher, and the City Social Welfare Office staff. Available reports from the City Social Welfare and Development of Batangas were also reviewed. The study hopes to provide initial data for future research that will focus on policy formulation and program intervention for the improvement of living conditions of the Bajaus in Batangas.
The Literary History of the Philippines Project Phase 4.3: Hiligaynon Writers and the Translation of Hiligaynon Short Story into English
Genevieve L. Asenjo
This is the second collection for the Hiligaynon Literature anthology project under the Literary History of the Philippines Project (LIHIP) of the Department of Literature. It showcases nine stories from both senior and younger writers to represent and illustrate the growth of Hiligaynon Literature through the years, particularly in terms of themes, style, and language use. These selections were chosen from the collection Phase 4.2: Preservation of Archival Materials, which is mainly the product of field work and gathering done by Ms. Pieta Agatha Verdadero from different sources like the Hiligaynon Magazine, West Visayan anthologies such as Ani (CCP, 1989) and Patubas (NCCA, 1995), personal collections and works of Hiligaynon scholars like Dr. Regina Groyon of University of St. La Salle in Bacolod City, and the Don Carlos Palanca Foundation for the stories that have won in the Annual Palanca literary awards.
The Bikol Rawitdawit in English Translation
Paz Verdades M. Santos
This project on Bikol literature is a phase of the Literary History of the Philippines (LIHIP) project of the Literature Department of De La Salle University.
The selection process started by choosing only one poem per author based on 1) the proponent's own taste and experience in teaching poetry, with the anthology serving as an effective tool for teaching courses in vernacular Philippine literature; 2) consultations with selected poets on what they considered their best work; 3) discussions with a loose group of Bikol poets called the Kabulig about the current choices, as well as on who and what to include in this would-be canon of writing in Bikol; and 4) consultations with some teachers of literature at the Ateneo de Naga and Aquinas University about the Bikol poems they personally like and those they teach.
Bikol poet and playwright Rodolfo Alano and the proponent worked on the translations without using any theory. Instead, they 1) looked at existing translations and used the well-crafted ones (e.g. "Underneath the Wharf" by Teresita Erestain); 2) borrowed those that gave the meanings of suanoy or ancient words no longer in circulation (e.g. "Just Hum to Yourself," Lilia Realubit's translation of "Pagaroanggoyong"); and 3) either revised/edited or came up with new ones.
Specially difficult to translate were some of the folk poems and early verses because of their fixed rhyme or meter, which had to be to approximated in the English translations. The poets were asked to comment on the translations and some of them responded by sending their own versions. In such cases, the translators deferred to them, so their own voices would be heard even in translation. Other poets who were not comfortable writing in English, or felt that it would be better for someone else to translate their work, generally approved the translators' work.
The English translations facilitated the task of weeding out texts from the anthology in which the selections should 1) sound good, whether in Bikol or English, and 2) serve as representative texts that reflect the poems' themes and milieus (e.g. the risqué quality of some of the folk poems, the tendency to moralize in the poems from the 1930s to the 1950s, and the attention to form and social realities in contemporary poems).
Thus, the 56-page anthology of rawitdawit with translations in English includes some folk poetry, ten early versifiers, and twenty-two contemporary poets, six of whom were not in the original lineup. New and better poems were submitted by the poets themselves, in place of earlier ones they had given. For archival purposes, also included are translations that will not be included in the final anthology.
Domain Generality and Domain Specificity of Motivation and Learning Strategies: Science High School Students Self-Regulation Profiles of Science and Social Studies
Melissa Lopez Reyes
Students from two Philippine Science high schools twice completed motivation and learning strategies scales, in relation to their current science and social studies courses. The finding that a trait latent factor exists for each scale is evidence for the scales' domain generality, while the finding that a domain latent factor exists for each scale is evidence for the scales' domain specificity. Domain generality is further shown by the similarity across science and social studies of the relationships between motivation and learning strategies. The greater domain specificity of motivation for social studies compared to motivation for science is shown by the finding that motivation for social studies reliably predicts only social studies grades, but science reliably predicts both science and social studies grades.
Structures of Apathy and Compassion/Altruism: Alienations and Solidarities in Capitalist Societies
Ferdinand D. Dagmang
Theology and Religious Education Department
This article sets the topics of apathy and compassion against the backdrop of alienations and solidarities in industrial/post-industrial capitalism. A socio-historical analysis is employed to identify distinct behavioral and social-institutional processes and practices as well as underlying structures that determine both persons and institutions. The theories and practices of capitalism in different places and periods has produced various theories and practices of welfare that have implications for the understanding and practice of compassion/apathy and solidarities/alienations as well as those of capitalism itself. With the use of social-philosophical theories that aid in the understanding of the deeper structures of the capitalist state of affairs and processes, this study further offers a groundwork and a stage towards more developed ethical reflections on social suffering, compassion, and behavior formation today. Thus, Christian-ethical reflections may derive some principles from this analysis of compassion and apathy, which is made more intelligible to a wider public-a process that is usually beyond the Christian tradition's sphere of influence. The article also shows how Christian ethics may rely on the indispensable mediations of various disciplines that offer both methodological approaches and substantive findings.
RELSTWO: The Church and Sacraments
Elena G. Almandrez
Theology and Religious Education Department
The project is the production of teaching materials, specifically Overhead Transparencies, for the RELSTWO Course. All in all, there are 118 transparencies, 34 of which pertain to the topic Church, 12 to the topic Liturgy, and 72 about the seven Sacraments in the Catholic Church. The teaching aids are primarily of great benefit to the TRED faculty members who are assigned to teach Church and the Sacraments and to RELSTWO students as well. They are also useful to teachers, particularly the proponent of this project, who are actively involved in the formation of cathechists and lay leaders, and to others in their pastoral involvement.
Upland Tingguian Women: Their Proposed Roles in the Peace-Making Processes and Development in the Cordillera Region (Abra)
Luis C. Sembrano
Theology and Religious Education Department
This study identifies the different causes of armed conflicts in the upper part of the Cordillera, particularly in Abra where Tingguian municipalities have been the sites of armed encounters between the NPA, CPLA, and the military. It describes the indigenous mechanisms that Tingguian women employ in resolving conflict and in coping during periods of armed encounters. Furthermore, it delineates the roles of the Tingguian women in the peace-making process and in community development.
Through a descriptive and exploratory method, the study used fieldwork, face-to-face interviews, and limited participant observation for data gathering. Ten women from the four municipalities were selected as respondents. The data were subjected to simple frequency count and qualitative data analysis, especially by noting similarities and differences.
Tingguian women unanimously agree that poverty, abuse of the environment, and failure of the government in delivering basic services are the main reasons for war and underdevelopment in their communities. As part of the population, these women do their share and use their power to improve the peace and order situation and pursue development in their areas. In times of encounters, they do various tasks, including nursing and treating the wounded, burying the dead, and initiating dialogues between the warring parties. To cope during troubled times, they keep silent, befriend the military, and spearhead the reconciliation process. However, their roles are not duly recognized because culturally speaking, policy formulation and decision making are the domains of the men. Thus, the research contends that peace and development in the Tingguian communities can be attained when the roles of the women are openly acknowledged and encouraged.
Theorizing Filipina Feminism
Mary Janet M. Arnado
Behavioral Sciences Department
In reviewing theorizing efforts on Filipina feminism by Filipino scholars published locally, nationalist feminism stands out as a dominant theme in the works of Aguilar (1994-95; 1998) and Mananzan (1987). Other Filipino feminists have written about the nature of feminism from their own political standpoints (Aquino, 1990; Quintos-Deles 1990), but there has not been any empirical attention given to examining the Filipina perspectives existing in the Philippines.
This paper attempts to explain what makes Filipina feminism distinct from its Western and other Third World counterparts, and to examine feminist visions and strategies for social change. It also traces the foundation and progressive development of the feminist movement and explores how feminists/activists grapple with gender issues in everyday life and intimate relationships.
To draw empirical data, this study utilized tape-recorded and transcribed "conversations" (later analyzed using the NUD*UST) with twenty feminists/activists in metropolitan Manila, Cebu, and Davao. The informants' ages ranged from late twenties to mid-sixties while their educational backgrounds varied. Half of them are married and all, except four, belong to the middle class.
One notable finding of this research is the strong conviction of the feminists to make a difference not only in themselves, but also in the lives of the Filipino women. As a result of a cohesive feminist consciousness, these Filipinas espouse the elimination of patriarchy, which is viewed as a form of gender oppression rooted in class, ethnicity, and sexuality. Women's liberation, they assert, becomes truly realized only when the sources of oppression are obliterated.
The Lovely Bienvenido N. Santos
The project produced two plays for stage, one full-length and one one-act, which together paint a portrait of Bienvenido N. Santos, a Filipino-American writer who was De La Salle University's International Writer-in-Residence after he retired from Wichita State University. The project involved field research in Wichita (where Santos left his papers) and Naga (where the Bienvenido N. Santos Museum was, at that time). The project succeeded in creating a new dramatic form, creative non-fictional drama, using theatrical techniques to tell the true story of a life lived fully and imaginatively.
Paternal Involvement of Filipino Fathers with Adolescent Sons
Alexa P. Abrenica
This study fills the gaps in literature on the ways fathers carry out paternal involvement with their adolescent sons. Twenty fathers were interviewed using an interview guide constructed by the researcher. The instrument explored the adjustments and difficulties encountered by fathers in the care giving of their sons. In contrast, the reactions of adolescents to their father's involvement with them were obtained through a focus group discussion with ten 16-year-olds from DLS-Araneta University. Responses were then content analyzed and categorized into themes.
Results showed that communicating with sons is the most common way of reaching out, and which served various purposes such as monitoring, admonition, information giving, and value formation. Other ways included assisting sons with their school work and/or personal problems; taking them out to dinner, shopping, or movies; spending time together; and attending to their personal needs.
It was found that adjustments are made in consideration of the developments at adolescence. Among these adjustments are in the ways fathers communicate with their sons. Disciplining also has to be changed from physical modes to verbal reprimand. Greater vigilance on the part of the fathers regarding their sons' activities, as well as on their own efforts to serve as role models, is likewise emphasized. The difficulties that fathers encounter have to do with the developing personality of the adolescent son who is in transition from childhood to adulthood. Dealing with mood changes, penetrating a private world (where adults seem forbidden), handling the novelty of the experience, molding the adolescent into a better person, coping with midlife changes, and having to deal with adolescent transformations prove difficult for fathers.
The adolescent boys reacted positively to their fathers' involvement and clamored for more opportunities to experience paternal care beyond the common responsibility of providing for the family.
A major recommendation is to replicate the study to explore paternal involvement among those in the lower socioeconomic stratum, those with limited or no education, and those coming from the rural areas in order to produce a more comprehensive picture of the Filipino father-son relationship. It is also suggested that the findings be verified by conducting a large-scale survey.
The Eschatological Vision of Matthew 24:1-31 and Its Implications for Religious Educators
Ricardo M. Puno
Theology and Religious Education Department
Despite the neglect that eschatology has suffered, the belief in the "end times" is a central doctrine of Christianity. Thus, as human beings cherish the past, take on the challenges of the present, and yearn for the fulfillment of God's promises in the future, eschatology as hope-seeking understanding should be allowed to complement their efforts of faith and love-seeking understanding and vice-versa. But this can only be achieved if eschatology is retrieved from the margins and brought once more to the center of both theology and religious education.
This research was written with the purpose of bringing to the fore the eschatological dimension of the Christian faith, and assists fellow religious educators in their efforts to live and teach the Christian vision for the future. However, it is not the aim of this investigation to offer a comprehensive exposition on eschatology; its goal is to arrive at a better appreciation of the "end-time" doctrine as it is proposed in the First Gospel (Mt 24:1-31). In grappling with this difficult Matthean teaching, the study revolves around three fundamental problems: How is eschatology understood in the text? What are the theological themes to be inferred from Matthew's understanding of the "end times"? What is the relevance of this biblical investigation for religious educators in the Philippine setting?
To resolve the foregoing issues, the researcher employed the historical-critical method, which, along with the other controlling elements, are taken up in Chapter One. These concerns, however, not only delineate the parameters of the study; they also determine the organization of the inquiry. Hence, by investigating the features of the First Gospel in general and its situation in life, Chapter Two situates the Matthean perspective of hope in the context of a particular environment. Chapter Three takes up the discourse itself. In this section, important terms and phrases that are essential in the overall interpretation of the text are clarified. Chapter Four investigates the relationship and arrangement of the linguistic signs employed by Matthew to express his "end-time" vision. Chapter Five concludes the study by looking into the significance of the text to Christian living as well as the relevance of the inquiry itself to professional religious educators in the Philippine setting.
The Indio Christ: Apolinario dela Cruz and his Contribution to the Filipino People's Struggle for Freedom, 1832-1843
Luis C. Dery
The proponent undertook archival research and analysis of the contents of contemporaneous documents pertinent to Apolinario de la Cruz and his Confradia de San Jose. Among others, the following groups of archival documents were studied, from which data about the subject of research was gathered.
A.From the National Archives of the Philippines:
Apolinario de la Cruz Records
Real Audiencia Records (the Supreme Court of the Philippines during the Spanish period)
Ereccion de Pueblos-Tayabas Records
Ereccion de Pueblos-Laguna Records
Ereccion de Pueblos-Batangas Records
Varias Provincias-Tayabas Records
Varias Provincias-Laguna Records
Varias Provincias-Batangas Records
Document: 610-stanza poem entitled: Historia de la Confradia que fundo el Hermano Apolinario de la Cruz en el pueblo de Lucban trabajada y puesta en verso por mi para major estimular los corazones y amigos de todos sus hermanos o la insinuada Confradia de devoto Padre San Jose.
B.From the University of the Philippines Microfilm Library (newspaper with accounts about Hermano Pule):
El Renacimiento Filipino
La Politica de España en Filipinas
Filipinas Ante Europa
Psychopathology Among Filipinos: Culture-bound Diagnosis, Therapeutic Practices, and Prevention Measures for Mental Illness
Roberto E. Javier, Jr.
This ethnographic study employed the Sikolohiyang Pilipino approach of panunuluyan, the process by which the researcher participates in the life of community. Participants in the kuwentuhan sessions were sampled purposively from natural clusters of people living either in the coastal, upland, or lowland communities in both urban and rural areas. Data in the form of stories were generated through the Sikolohiyang Pilipino method of kuwentuhan, a process of sharing of stories and telling tales about the phenomenon of mental illness in the community. These stories were gathered from the four major ethnic language groups: Ilocano, Tagalog, Bicol, and Cebuano. Transcripts and tales were qualitatively analyzed and interpreted through the meaning-making process to describe psychopathology in Philippine culture. Individuals involved in the kuwentuhan validated the meaning derived by the ethnographer through the process of feedback to the community. The participants confirmed the truthfulness and trustworthiness of interpretations of the tales and stories from the 118 narratives as well as the strands of data from the field notes.
Results reveal the people's mental illness metaphor, its cultural meaning, and its implication to the study of cultural psychopathology. A conceptual framework on Filipino psychopathology is presented showing the spiritual and social aspects of mental illness and wellness in Philippine culture as well as the concepts of loob, bait, and sarili. Cosmic beliefs heavily influence causal explanations about madness. The spiritual worldview of the Filipino affects his concept of the nature of illness, both physical and mental. A culture-based psychodiagnosis of mental illness centers on the characterological aspect of making assessment. Traditional therapies for mental illness and prescriptions for prevention are based on Filipino folk beliefs on the causes of madness.
Lead, Cadmium, and Zinc Concentrations in Selected Species of Macrobenthic Algae, Seawater, and Sediments in Brgy. Bagong Silang, Calatagan, Batangas Province
Milagros L. Relon
Laurencia papillosa (C. Agardh) Greville, Ulva reticulata Forsskal, Halimeda opuntia (Linn.) Lamouroux, Gracilaria manilaensis Yamamoto, and Trono and Padina minor Yamada, seawater and sediments collected from Brgy. Bagong Silang, Calatagan, Batangas Province in September 2001 to July 2002, were analyzed for their lead, cadmium, and zinc content by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
The highest mean concentration for lead was observed in sediments (38.59 mg/kg) compared to those in the algae (0.38-28.76 ug/mL) and in seawater (0.30 mg/L). For cadmium, the mean values were 3.53 mg/kg for sediment, 0.28- 2.51ug/mL for algae, and 0.07 mg/L for seawater. For zinc, the mean values were 4.94-7.31 ug/mL for algae, 5.50 mg/kg for sediment, and 0.01 mg/L for water.
A significant linear relationship of the level of lead, cadmium, and zinc in water and sediments was observed. There was also a significant difference (p=<.0001) in the concentration of lead, cadmium, and zinc in L. papillosa (C. Agardh) Greville and U.reticulata Forsskal using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mean metal concentrations in seawater decreased in the order: Pb > Cd > Zn using Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The mean lead concentration in sediment was significantly different (p=<.0001) from those of cadmium and zinc.
The mean lead concentrations in the algae and seawater were higher than the standards set by Codex alimentarius for food (0.2 mg/kg) and by the Environmental Management Bureau for marine water (0.05 mg/L).
The mean cadmium concentrations in H. opuntia (Linn.) Lamouroux (2.51 ug/mL), P. minor (0.72 ug/mL), and seawater (0.07 mg/L) were higher than the standards set by Codex alimentarius for food (0.5 mg/kg) and by the Environmental Management Bureau for marine water (0.01 mg/L).
The mean zinc concentration in algae was higher than the standard set by Codex alimentarius for food (0.15 mg/L).
Seawater temperature ranged from 250 to 300C, while pH ranged from 7.1 to 8.0. Salinity ranged from 18 to 38 ppt. The substrate was of sandy-rocky-coral type.
High Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae with Concurrent Multiple Resistance to Different Classes of Antimicrobials from Cases of a Tertiary Hospital in the Philippines
Esperanza C. Cabrera
Enterobacteriaceae isolates composed of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella ozaenae and Klebsiella pnuemoniae from cases of the Philippine General Hospital, Manila were studied for their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns using the disc diffusion method. Among the 185 isolates, only 11% were found to be susceptible to all of the fourteen antimicrobials tested. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was shown by 90% of the non-susceptible isolates, of which 31% were resistant to ten or eleven antimicrobials, found mainly among K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae, and K. ozaenae isolates. The highest percentage of E. coli resistance was to two antimicrobials at 25% within its species. The antimicrobial activities in increasing percentage of resistant strains were: imipenem (1%), cefepime (7%), amikacin (36%), gentamicin (40%), ceftazidime (48%), ceftriaxone (48%), cefotaxime (49%), aztreonam (50%), ciprofloxacin (50%), cefuroxime (52%), netilmicin (60%), tetracycline (68%), and sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim (70%). Moreover, using the double disc synergy assay and the E-test, the prevalence of extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL) producers among the non-susceptible isolates was found to be 78%, which is relatively high compared to those in other studies. All of the ESBL isolates were also resistant to other classes of antimicrobials in addition to the -lactams. Plasmids of between 16-23 kb in size, some of which were transferable by conjugation, were detected among the isolates studied. The transconjugants were converted to ESBL producers, in addition to resistance to the other groups of antimicrobials.
Results of the study underscore the urgent need for vigilant surveillance for antimicrobial resistance and strict implementation of proper antimicrobial usage.
Isolation, Structure Elucidation, and Antimicrobial Assay of Secondary Metabolites from Five Philippine Medicinal Plants
The following are the abstracts of the five papers that resulted from the studies on the five medicinal plants.
The leaves of Blumea balsamifera afforded icthyothereol acetate (1) and cryptomeridiol (2), lutein, and ?-carotene. The structures of one and two were elucidated by extensive 1-D and 2-D NMR spectroscopy, while those of lutein and ?-carotene were identified by comparison with literature data. Antimicrobial tests indicated that (1) has moderate activity against the fungi Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Candida albicans, while (2) has low activity against A. niger, T. mentagrophytes, and C. albicans. Both compounds have no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli.
The rhizomes of Curcuma domestica afforded curcumin (1), bisacurone (2), a mixture of ar-turmerone (3), ?-turmerone (4), and a-turmerone (5), and ar-curcumyl alcohol (6). These compounds were identified by NMR spectroscopy and their spectroscopic data were compared with those reported in the literature. Antimicrobial tests on 1-6 indicated that 2-6 have moderate antifungal activity against A. niger, while 3-6 have moderate antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa.
The freeze dried unripe fruit of Achras zapota afforded a mixture of ?-amyrin pentanoate (1a) and a-amyrin pentanoate (1b) in a 2:1 ratio, a mixture of spinasterol (2a) and taraxerol (2b) in a 2.4:1 ratio, and a fatty acid ester of oleanolic acid (3). Their structures were identified by NMR spectroscopy. 3 and sample 1 were tested for antimicrobial activity by the agar cup method. Sample 1 showed moderate activity against the fungus C. albicans and low activity against the fungi A. niger and T. mentagrophytes. 3 exhibited low activity against C. albicans and A. niger, and was inactive against T. mentagrophytes. They were inactive against the bacteria E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and B. subtilis.
The aerial parts of Centella asiatica afforded -farnesene (1) and neophytadiene (2). Their structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. 2 indicated moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. niger and low activity against T. mentagrophytes. It showed low antibacterial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, and was inactive against S. aureus and B. subtilis.
The flowers of Brugmansia suaveolens afforded -carotene, -sitosterol, -stigmasterol, 3 -hydroxyonocera-8(26), 14-dien-21-one, and lansiolic acid by silica gel chromatography. Their structures were identified by comparison of their 1H NMR spectral data with those reported in the literature.
Unfolding Complete Graphs, Paths, and Cycles
Severino V. Gervacio
Yvette F. Lim
If two nonadjacent vertices of a graph G having a common neighbor are identified to obtain the graph H, we say that H is a 1-fold of G. We also say that G is a 1-unfold of H. For convenience, any graph G is regarded as a 0-fold of G. If k is any positive integer, we say that H is a k-fold of G if H can be obtained from G by folding G iteratively k times. Thus, a k-fold of G is a 1-fold of a (k " 1)-fold of G. If H is a k-fold of G, we call G a k-unfold of H. The symbol F" 1 (G) denotes the set of all k-unfolds of G for k e" 0. In this paper, we investigate the sets F"1 (G), where G is a complete graph, a path, or a cycle.
Multispectral Aerosol Optical Depth Measurement in Manila (14033.978'N; 120059.523'E) Using the Middleton SPO2 Sunphotometer
Maria Cecilia D. Galvez
A multispectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurement at four discrete wavelengths (368, 500, 675, and 862 nm) was carried out at De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines (14033.978'N; 120059.523'E) using a Middleton SP02 sunphotometer along with the sun-tracking and data acquisition system specifically developed for this study. The calibration experiments utilizing the Langley method were done at the DLSU campus in Canlubang, Philippines (14015.735'N; 12102.609'E) for three Saturdays. Cloud screening was also performed on some of the data to obtain the AOD. A total of ten morning and twenty-three afternoon sessions were considered for the mean AOD calculation. The AOD for all the four wavelengths during the four successive clear days considered for April were higher in the morning compared to those in the afternoon. The daily mean AOD for March-April 2004 also showed the same trend. During this two-month period, the mean AOD in the morning for 368, 500, 675, and 862 nm ranged from 0.43 to 1.49, 0.30 to 1.06, 0.21 to 0.67, and 0.19 to 0.46, respectively. In the afternoon, the mean AOD for 368, 500, 675, and 862 nm ranged from 0.40 to 1.14, 0.20 to 0.80, 0.13 to 0.51, and 0.10 to 0.34, respectively.