Bachelor of Science in Biology
Degree Codes: Program- BSBIO Plan -BSBIO

The Department of Biology offers a major program in Biology and provides service courses to Liberal Arts and Commerce students. The major program is based on an organized sequence of courses, which serve as a strong foundation for future endeavor, be it in research, teaching, industry, or further studies in the medical or graduate schools. The Biology major is exposed to the different aspects of Biology through lectures, laboratory work, research, and field trips.

Biological Research Methods 1 (BIORE-1)
2 units
A course in BS Biology Program in which the required output is a scientific research proposal.
Pre-requisite: BIOSTAT, ENGLSCI

Biological Research Methods 2 (BIORE-2)
2 units
This is the scientific investigation of laboratory or field research under the supervision of the faculty.
Pre-requisite: BIORE-1

Biological Research Methods 3 (BIORE-3)
2 units
This is the oral and written presentation of the findings of the directed research accomplished in BIORE-2.
Pre-requisite: BIORE-2

Biostatistics (BIOSTAT)
4 units
A course in appropriate statistical procedures for experimental research and surveys. Tests such as t-test, F-test, chi-square test and analysis of variance are covered.
Pre-requisite: Algebra

Botany 1 (BOTAONE)
3 units
An introductory course dealing with basic principles related to structures, functions, processes, growth regulators and movements necessary for an understanding of growth and development of flowering plants.

Botany 1 Laboratory (LABOTA1)
2 units
An introductory course dealing with exercises in morphology, anatomy and physiology of flowering plants.

Botany for BS Human Biology (BOTANNY)
3 units
An introductory course dealing with basic principles (structures, functions, processes, growth regulators, movements) necessary for an understanding of growth and development of flowering plants. A brief introduction to plant diversity is included.

Botany Laboratory for BS Human Biology (BOTALAB)
2 units
An introductory laboratory course dealing with exercises in morphology, anatomy and physiology of flowering plants. The course also includes a survey of the plant kingdom.

Botany 2 (BOTATWO)
3 units
A survey of the plant kingdom as well as organisms under Kingdoms Monera and Fungi. Selected organisms under Kingdom Protista are also studied. Emphasis is given on the morphology, anatomy and reproductive cycles of representative species. The role they play in nature as well as their economic importance are also taken into consideration.
Pre-requisite: Botany 1

Botany 2 Laboratory (BOTLAB2)
2 units
A laboratory course dealing with the survey of organisms under the Kingdoms Plantae, Monera, Fungi and Protista with emphasis on morphology and economic relevance to man.
Pre-requisite: Labota1

Cell Biology (CELLBIO)
3 units
An introductory course that deals mainly with the structure and function of the different components of the cell. It also deals with interactions among cells.
Pre-requisites: Biochemistry, Genetics, Zoology 1

Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates (COMPANA)
3 units
Basic patterns of vertebrates structure is given emphasis in the lecture, which are augmented with dissections done in the laboratory. Students are given an insight of how similar or dissimilar vertebrates are.
Pre-requisite: General Zoology

Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates Laboratory (COMPLAB)
2 units
A course that deals with basic patterns of vertebrates through dissection of representative animals.
Pre-requisite: General Zoology

Ecology (ECOLOGG)
3 units
This is an introductory course on the general concepts and principles pertaining to the complex pattern of interaction between the physical environment and the biological communities on earth. Emphasis is also given on current environmental issues and concerns.
Pre-requisites: Zoology 2, Botany 2, Biostatistics, Inorganic Chemistry, Organic Chemistry and Analytical Chemistry

Ecology Laboratory (ECOLLAB)
2 units
This deals with the basic principles and methodologies pertaining to population and community structure. The assessment of environmental quality is also included.

Environmental Biology (ENVIROB)
3 units
This course for non-science majors provides the basic concepts and principles of ecology, and presents the relationship of man’s activities to the prevailing condition of the biosphere. This course encompasses environmental management and environmental policies that are presently implemented and reinforced.

Environmental Biology (ENVIBIO)
2 units
The course for non-science majors offers a general view of the ecosystems, with emphasis on the interactions of the biotic and abiotic components. This course discusses the general concepts of ecosystems and their parts and functions. Man’s effects on the ecosystems both positive and negative, are stressed. The students are also equipped with skills for environmental studies especially with specific activities in the laboratory.

Environmental Biology Laboratory (ENVILAB)
1 unit
This is the laboratory component of ENVIBIO. The activities in the laboratory enhance the lecture discussions and provide the necessary skills for assessing environmental impacts of societal activities. The laboratory activities also pave the way for a deeper understanding of environmental concepts and focus on society’s responsibilities to the ecosystems.

Fundamentals of Genetics (FUNDGEN)
2 units
The course for non-science majors provides an introduction of basic concepts involved in genetics for non-science majors. It highlights principles in human genetics that explain causes of common heritable diseases.

Fundamentals of Genetics Laboratory (FUNDLAB)
1 unit
The laboratory course provides an introduction to quantitative genetics and molecular genetics. It presents analytical approaches for solving genetics problems, construction of models and conducting biological surveys.

Genetic (GENETIC)
3 units
The course introduces the students to basic concepts and principles involved in the science of genetics. A balanced view of both classical and molecular genetics is presented.
Pre-requisites: Biostatistics, Biochemistry, Zoology 1, and Botany 2

Genetic Laboratory (LABGENE)
1 unit
A course that deals with exercises on chromosomal basis of inheritance, structure of genetic material and Mendelian and Non-Mendelian inheritance.

Histology (HISLECT)
2 units
A study of the structure of the animal cells and tissues; with discussions on recent developments in electron microscopy.
Pre-requisite: Zoology 1

Histology Laboratory for BS Human Biology (HISLAB)
3 units
Emphasis is placed on studying morphologic and functional features of cells, tissues and organs of mammalian specimen.

Human Biology (HUMABIO)
2 units
The course for non-science majors covers the various functioning systems of the human body and relates the practical applications of the knowledge gained in everyday living.

Human Biology Laboratory (HUMALAB)
1 unit
A one-unit laboratory course that gives emphasis on experiments involving the human organ systems. Tissues and organs of the body are examined both microscopically and together with their gross morphology especially the organs. Films are also being shown to enhance understanding among students.

Human Biology (HUMANBI)
3 units
An introduction to biology through the study of structure and function of the cells, tissues, and organ systems of man. Topics also include health related environmental concerns and bioethical issues.

Immunology (IMMULEC)
3 units
The course covers the study of principles encompassing cellular and molecular immunity. Basic components of the human immune system are individualy studied, their interactions and intercommunications forming a complex network of defense elucidated. Clinical applications are taken up, particularly infections, allergy and autoimmunity, to emphasize the importance of this system in disease mechanisms and causation.

Integrated Science (BIOARTS)
2 units
This introductory course in biology is part of the integrated science program designed to provide the liberal arts students with the basic knowledge and appreciation of man and his environment. The course surveys the ten human body systems and incorporates for each system related ecological concepts, principles, and issues. In this approach, the student gains an appreciative knowledge of his physical self, his role in modifying the environment and how he is affected by such changes in the environment.

Integrated Science (BLABART)
1 unit
This is a one-unit laboratory course supplementing the BIOARTS lecture. This course provides students the opportunity to conduct the scientific investigations in biology. The line up of experiments in this course helps the student acquire appreciative knowledge of his physical self and his environment.

Limnology (LIMNOGY)
2 units
This is an introductory course to freshwater ecology with emphasis on the physical, chemical and biological aspects of inland, waters such as ponds, streams and lakes.
Pre-requisite: Ecology

Marine Biology (MARIBIO)
2 units
The course introduces the students to various concepts related to marine ecosystems. Emphasis is placed on the interaction of biotic and abiotic components, productivity and conservation of estuaries and oceans.
Pre-requisite: Ecology

Microbiology Lecture (MICROBI)
2 units
The course deals with the study of anatomy, physiology and genetics of microorganisms, in particular, those of typical and atypical bacteria, viruses, viroids and prions.
Pre-requisite: Botany 2, Zoology 2, and Biochemistry

Microbiology Laboratory (MICOLAB)
2 units
The course deals with the study of anatomy and physiology of microorganisms, in particular, those of typical and atypical bacteria, viruses, viroids and prions.

Parasitology (PARASIT)
2 units
A study of parasitism, systematics, morphology, life cycle, transmission, pathogenesis of protozoans, helminth and arthropods of men and other mammals.
Pre-requisite: Zoology 1 and 2

Parasitology Laboratory (PARALAB)
1 unit
A course that deals with the microscopic examination of the different parasites infecting man and related vertebrate from parasitic protozoans to arthropods. Emphasis is given on the morphological aspects of the parasites.

Physiology (PYSIOLO)
3 units
The purpose of this course is to present the fundamental principles and mechanisms of vertebrate physiology with emphasis to the human systems. Concepts of the internal environment and generalized components of the homeostatic control systems are discussed as well as structure--function relationships of the different systems.
Pre-requisites: Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates, Zoology 1, Physics 2

Physiology Laboratory (LABPHYS)
1 unit
The purpose of this course is to present the fundamental principles and mechanisms of vertebrate physiology with emphasis on human systems.

Terrestrial Ecology (TERECOL)
2 units
An advanced course that deals with ecological concepts related to grassland and forest ecosystems.
Pre-requisite: Ecology

Terrestrial Ecology Laboratory (TERELAB)
1 unit
A laboratory course that deals with physico-chemical analysis of selected habitats, organism environment interactions, and population productivity measurements in selected terrestrial ecosystems.

Vertebrate Embryology (EMBRYON)
2 units
Vertebrate Embryology deals with the principles and patterns of development in vertebrates. Students are expected to attain a working knowledge of the ontogenetic development in vertebrates.
Pre-requisite: Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates Lecture and Laboratory

Vertebrate Embryology Laboratory (EMYOLAB)
2 units
Embryonic development in vertebrates is studied in the laboratory with frog, chick and pig as representative animals.
Pre-requisite: Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates Lecture and Laboratory

Zoology 1 (ZOOLONE)
3 units
This is an introductory course to animal kingdom which emphasizes the study of structures and functions of the organ systems with special reference to vertebrates.

Zoology 1 Laboratory (LABZOO1)
2 units
Laboratory activities emphasize the study of structures and function of the organ systems of vertebrates.

Zoology for BS Human Biology (ZOOLOGY)
3 units
This is an introductory course to animal kingdom with emphasis on the study of structures and function of the organ systems of animals. Lecture topics primarily deal with human systems.

Zoology Laboratory for BS Human Biology (ZOOLLAB)
2 units
Laboratory activities deal with the study of structures and functions of vertebrates with emphasis on humans. Laboratory exercises also include taxonomic identification of different invertebrates.

Zoology 2 (ZOOLTWO)
3 units
An investigation of morphological and physiological details of various invertebrate taxonomic groups, with collection and identification of local fauna.
Pre-requisite: Zoology 1

Zoology 2 Laboratory (LABZOO2)
2 units
Laboratory activities deal with taxonomic identification of different invertebrates.
Pre-requisite: LABZOO1