Thesis Archive

Conversion of Lignocelluloses into bioethanol utilizing hardwood sawdust used for pleurotus ostreatus cultivation (2013)

Kimberly Christine L. Espinosa
Alyssa Mara C. Manalo
Ma. Camille M. Panganiban


-"Coconut biodiesel is a mixture of coconut methyl ester (CME) and conventional diesel fuel. CME is produced through transesterification reaction between coconut oil and methanol, with a methanol to oil ratio of 6.6:1 and a yield of 90.01%. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was chosen to be the catalyst with a 1.7 wt% based on the amount of coconut oil. A functional unit of 1-kilogram production of CME was the basis of the life cycle assessment. A mass of 0.8457 kg of crude coconut oil would yield 1 kg of CME and 0.111 kg of glycerine. Both CME and glycerine from coconut oil were displaced by low-sulfur diesel and glycerine from another source. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of CME was done through using SimaPro 7 software. IMPACT 2002+ was the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) method used. IMPACT 2002+ results were based from the Life Cycle Inventory Analysis (LCI) of CME using the input-output values of each process. Only nine impact categories were considered including water use. CME’s environmental impacts are largely influenced by the raw material extraction stage, especially impacts of land occupation, terrestrial ecotoxicity and global warming potential. Amount of electricity consumption during production of coconut biodiesel has a large influence in the increase of global warming potential. In comparison to the Life Cycle Assessment of palm methyl ester (PME), CME uses larger land area than PME and has higher global warming potential (9.02 kg CO2-eq) than PME (8.46 kg CO2-eq). A sensitivity analysis was conducted for the data that was assumed. Variables, such as electricity, transportation and methanol, were varied to see the data’s sensitivity in terms of its contribution to impact categories. Varying the amount of electricity has the largest effect on the impact categories while the variation of transportation values has the least effect. Aquatic ecotoxicity and non-renewable energy impact categories were the most sensitive when it came to changing the displacement of copra meal, which originally is livestock feed from spring barley. Aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity impact categories were the most sensitive when it came to changing the displacement of glycerine from CME, which originally is glycerine from PME (at plant)."


Luis F.Razon